The whole of the seventeenth century was nothing but the further development of this “Renaissance”. Since the humanistic attraction towards the occult aspects of nature and life was associated with the impression produced by Luther’s words on the evil one always present and operating among men, a whole strangely rich literature on magic, witchcraft and the occult arts was born., which few countries of Europe in equal measure exhibit; and from the confusion and mixture of scientific research and alchemical experiments and studies of magic not even men like Ole Borch, admirer of the alchemist Borri, escaped. But real scientific research also made great strides. The powerful took an interest in it: they built large workshops in their castles: they protected scholars: they facilitated their travels and their personal relationships with the scientists of other peoples. Tycho Brahe found his followers in PJ Flemløse, in CS Longberg, and still more in Ole Christensen Rømer, the discoverer of the speed of light: in anatomy Caspar Bartholin and Thomas Bartholin excelled; Ole Worm in zoology; in botany Simon Paulli; in medicine and at the same time in geology, Niels Steensen. Multiform, anatomist, chemist, alchemist, philologist, Ole Borch (1626-90) was known throughout Europe. Legally, Danish legislation was accommodated (anatomy excelled Caspar Bartholin and Thomas Bartholin; Ole Worm in zoology; in botany Simon Paulli; in medicine and at the same time in geology, Niels Steensen. Multiform, anatomist, chemist, alchemist, philologist, Ole Borch (1626-90) was known throughout Europe. Legally, Danish legislation was accommodated (anatomy excelled Caspar Bartholin and Thomas Bartholin; Ole Worm in zoology; in botany Simon Paulli; in medicine and at the same time in geology, Niels Steensen. Multiform, anatomist, chemist, alchemist, philologist, Ole Borch (1626-90) was known throughout Europe. Legally, Danish legislation was accommodated (Kongelove, 1665; Christians V danske Lov, 1683), and the work of Rasmus Vinding (1615-84) shone there. The historical studies had many followers, including the Lyschander (De danske Kongers Sl œgtebog, 1622). Autobiographical memories of great interest are those of Leonora Christina Ulfeldt (L. C. U. S Jammersminde), fundamental for the knowledge of the spirit and life of the time, and J. Monrad. The popular Compendium cosmograficum del Nansen (1633) is a document of the progress of geography studies from the time of the first cartographer Claudius Clavus onwards. In the field of archeology A. Jonsson, T. Torfaeus and Arne Magnusson laid the foundations for the study of ancient Icelandic poetry and history: Thomas Baitholin the Younger (1659-90) applied the methods of classical philology to the study of national antiquities. The investigations of M. Moth contributed to the study of the Danish vocabulary and later offered an important material to the Danske Ordbog initiated by the Academy of Sciences in 1781; E. Pontoppidan composed a Danic Grammar ; but the real father of Danish linguistics was Peder Syv (1631-1702), with his studies on the language of the Cimbri, with Den danske Sprog Kunst eller Grammatica (1685), with the Danske Ordsprog and the Tohundrede Viser collection ; he was universally proclaimed “real philologist of the Danish language”. For Denmark 2013, please check physicscat.com.
On the other hand, literature proper, poetry, was almost entirely imitation. When it was not occasional poetry, so to speak, official, a tribute in verse to the powerful or literary fun to add to the pomp of their parties, in a style now baroque, now affected, responding to the taste of the people to be honored, it was, for mostly, a cold metric exercise on foreign models. Martino Opitz also extended his dominion over Denmark. And it was through Opitz and through Germany that the works of the Italian and, above all, French seventeenth century arrived there. The translation of D’Urfé ‘s Astrea, made by Søren Terkelsen, who also wrote the Astreae Sjunge – Chor, is written over a German version; all precepts have an analogous origin: Roskilde’s Prosodia linguae danicae ; the Linguae danicae exercitatio by HM Ravn; the Riimkunst by SP Gotlœnder, with some Italian influence, too. Instead, Anders Christensen Arrebo drew directly from the French in his Hexaemeron, modeled on the Semaine of Du Bartas: a limited but true poet, who with his rude simplicity managed in many details to revive the often monotonous text, and also otherwise in his version of the Psalms at times, Davide reached an effective originality of expression. Wein wandering singer, Weib und Gesang, author and editor of the first Danish literary journal, Den Danske Merkurius, in a total of 15,000 lines, an easy and harmonious verse, now popular in taste, now instead seventeenth-century and precious, also Anders Bording (1619- 1677) The major poet was Thomas Kingo, whose Aandeligt Sjungekor contains sacred praises and psalms in a style of Baroque taste, but rich in color, varied, warm and melodious.
The major importance of this literature, however, is that it prepares the advent of Holberg: who came from Norway and Norwegian has remained in the primitiveness of his nature – just as Norwegians are Peter Dass and the Engelbrechtsdatter – but lived in Copenhagen, in the culture Danish found its food, and Danish literature prior to the century. XIX is in a certain way the natural center and the culmination. Holberg’s contemporaries are either continuers of the religious poetic tradition such as Brorson, the psalmist, who next to Kingo is the eldest in Denmark, with an inflection of sweetness reminiscent of a certain German pietistic poetry of the eighteenth century; or scientists still like P. Horrebow, or erudite historians like Hans Gram (1685-1748) and Jacob Langebek (1710-1775) the former, founder of the Academy of Sciences, the latter, Scriptores rerumdanicarum M. And. (1698-1764); or followers of Holberg like F. Christian Eilschow (1725-1750) or like Jørgen Ries (1717-49), editor of the Danske Spectator on the model of Addison. Three suns emerge: Jørgen Sorterup (1662-1723), who in Ny Heltesange was among the first to draw inspiration from the Folkeviser ; Christian Falster (1690-1772), author of Amoenitates filologicae, amiable satirical poet; Ambrosius Stub (1705-1758), a poet with a simple but forthright vein, some of whose songs have remained alive until today.