Denmark History and Languages

By | December 18, 2021

Religion. – The apostolic prefecture of Denmark was established in 1868 and elevated to vicariate in 1892.

History. – From 1929 onwards, the coalition of Democrats and Social Democrats (the latter, the strongest party) remained in power, with the Stauning ministry. Indeed, its position was strengthened, especially after the 1936 elections, for the Senate (Landsting). The latter had in fact remained until then mastered by the opposition parties (agrarian left or venstraand conservatives), which held a total of 40 seats against 35 of the government parties. And the opposition between the House (Folketing) – pro-government – and the Senate had come to light especially in October 1932, when the Landsting had refused to approve a government proposal to regulate imports and exchange rates, making the dissolution of the Chamber and new elections are necessary. The latter, on November 17, marked a further, albeit slight, strengthening of the Social Democrats; a more marked strengthening of the conservatives; and a weakening instead of the democrats and the agrarian left: but on the whole they maintained their previous positions between government and opposition parties. Much more favorable to the government were the elections of 22 October 1935: in them the Social Democratic Party gained 6 seats, the Democrats retained the same number of seats, the Conservatives lost one and the left agrarians seven. And finally the elections of 22 September 1936 for the Landsting gave the government the majority in this assembly too: the two government parties in fact reached 39 seats, against 37 of the opposition parties. The internal life of the country was (January 1933 and February-March 1936) disturbed by strikes and lockouts of a certain gravity: but on the whole it does not present facts of particular importance. The attempt to create a nationalist party in Denmark, in the mold of German National Socialism, was unsuccessful; the party, created in April 1933, was dissolved on September 1, 1934. In international relations, norway, App.).

Languages. – Phonetics and morphology. – The Danish language has the characters that distinguish the Germanic languages ​​of the Nordic branch; however, among the Nordic languages ​​it appears from the most ancient documents as the most evolved in comparison with the primitive Nordic. For Denmark religion and languages, please check ezinereligion.com.

The most singular of the phonetic phenomena of today’s Danish consists in the type of accent that the national grammarians call Stødtone, or simply Stød, and the Germans Stosston. Most Danish phoneticians believe it is produced by an instantaneous closure of the glottis; however, according to J. Fochhammer it is strictly speaking a strong compression of the vocal cords, which only in some dialects can be so strong as to produce the closure of the glottis. Danish vocalism is characterized by a great variety of sounds that the usual spelling, of course, cannot reflect: ten qualitatively different “full” vowels and each having three variations of quantity (long, quasilunga with Stød, short), and a reduced vowel (ə). In consonantism the particular way of uttering voiced fricatives is especially noteworthy.

The declension, which already in medieval Danish appears to be very simplified, in today’s Danish can be said to be almost destroyed. Of the ancient cases, nominative, accusative and dative are no longer distinguished in form, while the singular and plural genitive has the exponent – s. There exists, but not in all nouns, the formal distinction between singular and plural, expressed by endings (plur. – e or – er) and in several nouns also (or only) by a change of the root vowel. The three genders, which are still distinct in the 3rd person pronoun, are reduced to two in the name since the masculine and feminine have merged into the “common gender”.

Characteristic of the Nordic languages ​​is the double form and construction of the given article. If the noun is qualified by an adjective, the article precedes this, and takes the forms in Danish: den (common sing.), Det (neutral sing.), De (plur.). If the adjective is missing, the given article suffiges the noun and takes the forms: – (e) n (sing. Com.), – (e) t (sing. Neutral), – (e) ne (plur.). The art. indeterminate, which has no plur., in sing. sounds: en (com.), et (neutral). Examples: Drengen “the boy”, en Dreng”a boy”, den enjoys Dreng “the good boy”; neutral Huset “the house”, et Hus “a house” det gamle Hus “the old house”. The double inflection of the adjective, an ancient characteristic of Germanic languages, survives in Danish, but the exponents are reduced in the “weak” declension to – e (for all forms) and in the “strong” a – t (sing. Neutral) and – and (plur.), having no desire for the sing. common. The verb retains the Germanic distinction between “strong” conjugation (imperfect without a suffix and almost always with a vowel different from that of the present) and “weak”, and with the same vowel of the present except in the infrequent case of regressive metaphony). The strong verb shows a great variety of types, due to the fact that the original apophonic series became complicated with other phonetic processes. Conjugation is very simple. The present indicative has in all the sing. a single form with the ending – r (o – er) and in the plur. a single form devoid of an ending and therefore equal to the infinitive. In today’s usage the ending of the sing. it is extended to the plur., so that any difference between this and that disappears. The imperfect ind. usually has a unique form, but in some strong verbs the sing. and the plur. they have different root vowels. Only in poetry is the ancient ending – stof the 2nd pers. sing. pres. and imperf.; and has an archaic flavor the – and in the plur. imperf. strong verbs. The future and the conditional are expressed with the infinitive ruled by the pres., And respectively by the imperf., Of the auxiliaries ville “volere” and skulle “duty”. The Danish passive, whose exponent – s is a residue of the reflexive pronoun, derives from the middle-passive conjugation, formed in the Old Norse for the affixing of some pronominal forms to the voices of the active verb. However, there is also a periphrastic passive formed with the auxiliary blive “becoming”.

Denmark Languages