An independent Danish culture becomes tangible in the Viking Age with the development of a Christian kingdom under Harald Blauzahn . Their testimonies are runic inscriptions, the historical story “Gesta Danorum” (Danish literature), which was still written in Latin, and church building in the High Middle Ages, which took over influences from France and forms of north German brick Gothic (Danish art). With the translations of the Bible during the Reformation, Danish found its way into literature. Ballads and hymns were the first expression of Danish music which experienced its first “golden age” in the Romantic era and gives room to folk influences up to the present day. The Roskilde Music Festival is one of the largest of its kind in Europe today.
Magnificent castles, including Kronborg, Frederiksborg and Rosenborg, were left behind by the Renaissance. The baroque found its way into the 18th century with the expansion of Copenhagen into a fortress city. B. Thorvaldsen influencedEuropean classicism with his sculptures. The establishment of the royal porcelain factory (1775) marked the beginning of the development of Danish design, which has set standards since the 1950s and 1960s, especially with furniture by A. Jacobsen , among others. The architects J. Utzon became world famous with the opera house in Sydney and Johann Otto von Spreckelsen with government buildings in Paris (Grande Arche). In the present applies Copenhagen as a model for contemporary cultural and residential architecture as well as sustainable urban development. The Cobra group gave strong impulses to the avant-garde in painting in the post-war period. The Louisiana Museum in Fredensborg sees itself as an adventure course for modern art. Check cellphoneexplorer to see Denmark Literature.
Baron von Holberg paved the way for the Danish theater in the Age of Enlightenment primarily with satirical plays. The art fairy tales by HC Andersen with its timelessly moving characters such as the “ugly duckling”, the “little mermaid”, the “girl with the sulfur sticks” and the “snow queen” are still popular today. The connection of folk loyalty and mythical themes characterizes the work of JV Jensen (Nobel Prize for Literature 1944), who introduced modernism in Danish literature with M. Andersen Nexø and his workers’ novels.
A variety of Danish film and series productions with a precise eye for society and characters (including Thomas Vinterberg, L. von Trier , S. Bier , Adam Price) are also recognized internationally. The Danish State Film Institute (DFI) takes on the task of producing and distributing films.
Sweet baked goods, the Smörrebröd and the traditional country inn (Kro) are expressions of Danish food culture. With the Tivoli in Copenhagen, which opened in 1843, the prototype of the amusement park was created. The folk high school wasinvented in Denmark.
World Heritage Sites (K) and World Natural Heritage (N)
- King’s burial mound, rune stones and church of Jelling (K; 1994)
- Roskilde Cathedral (K; 1995)
- Kronborg Castle near Helsingør (K; 2000)
- Ilulissat Icefjord in western Greenland (N; 2004)
- Cliff Stevns in the southeast Zealand (N; 2014)
- Herrnhuter settlement Christiansfeld, Southeast Jutland (K; 2015)
- The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand (K; 2015)
- Kujataa – subarctic agricultural landscape in Greenland (K; 2017)
- Inuit hunting grounds from Aasivissuit to Nipisat in Greenland (K; 2018)
The astronomical clock in Copenhagen
Twelve years of construction and 15,488 individual parts
After extensive restoration, a technical masterpiece was put back into operation in 1997: the astronomical clock in Copenhagen City Hall. Sunlight and oxygen had hardened the oil in the bearings, so that the clockworks had stopped.
The watch was designed by the Danish watchmaker Jens Olsen (* 1872, † 1945). During a visit to Strasbourg he was deeply impressed by the astronomical clock by Isaak Habrecht (built 1571–74) in the local cathedral. He carefully studied their functions and decided to build an even more accurate and complex clock. After studying in Basel, he returned to Denmark and settled in Copenhagen as a watchmaker. His technical understanding and innovative solutions soon made him known. He was one of the founding members of the Danish Astronomical Society.
In 1932 Olsen presented his plans for an astronomical clock, and in 1943 he began making the first parts. By now the clock had become a national concern. Olsen died in November 1945 when only ten of the eleven movements had been made; the perpetual calendar was still missing. Olsen’s successors worked tirelessly until all parts were finally completed in 1948. The architect Gunnar Biilman Petersen (* 1897, † 1968) was won over to design the housing. There were many problems with the assembly, individual movements had to be manufactured again because they did not fit into the intended case. Finally, in 1955, King Friedrich IX. the clock in operation.