Denmark 2000

By | December 18, 2021


During the 1990s, the population of the Denmark increased according to a modest annual rate of increase (4 ‰), marking a slight recovery compared to the previous fifteen years; but starting from the first years of the 2000s, zero growth is expected, with a substantial balance between births and deaths and the start of a slow demographic decrease. A consistent aging of the population, with the age groups between 45 and 65 years much increased compared to the young ones, is expected towards 2020 ÷ 2025. In this demographic context, the maintenance of the high quality level of assistance, typical of the Nordic countries, is proving to be inconsistent with the budgetary needs that entail restrictions on both assistance and pensions.

Since 1970, the urbanization of the population coming from the countryside has intensified, reaching peaks in the early 1980s; however, even if this trend continues (over 85 % of the population is urban) in areas of greater demographic concentration, such as the island of Sjælland, and in particular the metropolitan area of ​​Copenhagen, the phenomenon is decreasing. Sjælland, which covers less than 20 % of the territory, is home to over 40 % of the population, while for the Jylland peninsula the ratio is inverse, with almost 70 % of the land area and just over 45% of the population. The counties of Jylland bordering the Kattegat and the Great Belt and the island of Funen (Fyn) have a population density close to or above the national average, unlike those bordering the North Sea, which show a very high density. For Denmark society, please check

Economic conditions

Agriculture remains a strategic sector of the Danish economy, which has benefited from belonging to the EEC-European Union because Germany and the United Kingdom are part of it, traditional markets for its dairy products and quality farming. Sweden also imports Danish agricultural products to a large extent, previously with preferential tariffs between Nordic countries, now with Community tariffs. Butter and dairy products are produced – including feta Greek – both for the internal market and for European and US food multinationals. Processed pork and fish, which come mainly from the North Sea and Faroese shoals, are other well-known food products popular on European markets. The Community agricultural policy, which for many years has favored dairy production in central and northern Europe, has also favored Denmark.

The relative industrial weakness is partly offset by a substantial and specialized agri-food processing sector and, since the 1980s, development has been supported by the exploitation of some oil wells in the Danish sector of the North Sea (over 10 million tonnes of crude oil in 1996) from which natural gas is also extracted (7.9 billion m³ in 1996). This makes up for the historic shortage of energy sources and allows for substantial reductions in the trade balance.

The Denmark owns 780 km of motorways, connected to the impressive German network not only through Jylland, but also by Baltic ferries; the tourist movement counts about 1. 700. 000 presences a year, conspicuous compared to the population. For 2000a road and rail bridge will be operational on the Great Belt between the islands of Funen and Sjælland, intended to complete the connection between Germany and Sweden; another gigantic bridge is under construction over the Øresund, between Dragør, south of Copenhagen, and Malmö, in order to join the two sides of the international conurbation. Up to now, traffic has been guaranteed by efficient and expensive ferry services which connect the peninsula to the islands of Funen and Sjælland and to Sweden and, to the south-east, Sjælland and other smaller islands to Germany.

Ecological tourism in parks and agritourism in well-organized rural settlements currently constitute the main attraction of the tourist flow, which is destined to increase, together with that of transit and visits to historical and monumental places, especially in the capital and Odense; therefore the Danish policy of the vast parks in Jylland and in the smaller less populous islands is far-sighted.

The Skagen National Park, which takes its name from the town located at the northern end of Jylland, boasts a coastal landscape with large dunes, populated by birds in the migratory seasons; the islet of Samsø, north of the island of Funen, is also a national park; but above all the coast of Jylland overlooking the North Sea is the object of protection, both in the large park of Hansted and in smaller areas, as part of a European system that unites German, Dutch and Danish protected areas. Despite the high population density, there are also protected areas on the two major islands.

The use of private cars has been discouraged in the metropolitan area of ​​Copenhagen, while there has been a substantial increase in walking and cycling routes.

Since the late 1980s, Denmark has made considerable efforts to develop the use of renewable energy sources, in particular wind energy, with the installation of wind turbines in the sea, near Vindeby, and others on the coasts. of the peninsula; the thermal insulation of buildings has been drastically improved, as a result of which the consumption of energy for heating has decreased by 30 %; overall, dependence on oil dropped from 90 % in 1972 to 50 % in 1990 ; this is also due to the increase in the production of natural gas, extracted from submarine fields in the Danish sector of the North Sea.

Territorial issues

Participation in the European Union has allowed for some years to the Denmark a closer integration with many European states, even if the historical-geographical function of the country remains above all that of connection between central Europe and the Scandinavian Peninsula, in particular the Sweden. The Faroe Islands and Greenland, autonomous Danish counties, are not part of the European Union. With the entry of Sweden into the EU, Copenhagen and the whole island of Sjælland further strengthened their function as a bridge with the Scandinavian countries: a function, moreover, historically well defined since the borders between the countries of the Nordic Council they are ‘open’, and already allowed free movement. The international conurbation of Øresund, formed by the agglomeration of Copenhagen to the east and the

The autonomous counties

The Faroe Islands have a dual strategic function: on the one hand, they allow fishing on shoals that are not fully exploited, as evidenced by the quantity and diversification of the catch, object of flourishing export, and the disputes that the Danish government, in support of the autonomous one of the archipelago, it has argued for years with other countries bordering the ocean (United Kingdom, France), today diluted within the European Union; on the other hand, the ambiguous political position of the islands, which in 1973 did not formally accept accession to the EEC but in fact benefit from it through the Denmark, allows the mother country to have more far-reaching international agreements. The same happens with Greenland (60. 000 residents Of 2.. 600 km ²); the enormous Arctic land, which was of great strategic importance at the time of the Cold War and which in the years to come, together with the antarctic Antarctica, will assume great environmental importance for the Earth. With its colossal blanket of original ice, it is being studied to verify the evolution of the greenhouse effect and therefore of the increase in polar temperature.

Denmark 2000