Czech, Central European State Republic. It borders to the West and NW with Germany, to the South with Austria, to the SE with Slovakia and to the NE with Poland.
Its territory, corresponding to that of the two historical regions of Bohemia and Moravia, includes the plain formed by the high course of the Elbe (the Conca Boema), the internal slopes of the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains and the Sudetes, the Heights of Moravia, the plain of the upper and middle Morava. In addition to the Elbe, the main river, the two tributaries the Vltava and the Ohře are also important. The climate is continental.
In popular tradition, Čech is the name of a leader who brought his tribe from Transcarpathia to the center of Bohemia (later called Čechy), whose members were called Češi or Čechové (plural of čech). With the fusion of this Slavic tribe with other related ones, the Czech people were formed under the dominion of the Přemyslids. This denomination was later extended also to the groups established in Moravia, while in the non-Slavic languages this people was called Bohemian (German Böhmen, Br. Bohèmes).
According to Homosociety, the current population is made up of Czechs (90.4%), Moravians (3.7%), similar to the former and speaking the same language, Slovaks (1.9%) and minorities of Poles, Silesians, Germans and other. The number of residents underwent a slight decrease in the 1990s due to the decline in birth rates and demographic aging. The capital, Prague, welcomes almost 1.2 million residents into the urban agglomeration (which exceeds the limits of its administrative unit); other large concentrations are those of Brno, the capital of South Moravia, of Ostrava and Plzeň.
In the religious field, the Catholic majority (26.8%) is flanked by a traditional, active small Protestant and Hussite minority (2.1%), as well as non-practicing religious who represent 59% of the population.
The newborn Republic immediately asked to join the European Union and the following decade was dedicated to achieving the parameters necessary for entry into the EU. The privatization program, the stabilization of prices and money and the creation of a new banking system have attracted numerous foreign investors. After a slowdown in the second half of the 1990s, the measures adopted to control public spending, including tax and health sector reforms, the innovations introduced in the labor market and those aimed at facilitating the development of small medium-sized enterprises led to significant economic expansion, with a relative increase in GDP (4.2% 2008 estimate). The unemployment rate remains high, with a tendency to increase (8%).
Agriculture, largely privatized, boasts specialized productions: sugar beet, wheat, barley (intended for brewing, with the complementary cultivation of hops in the Ohře valley), potatoes and also, on modest areas, vines (Moravia, plain of Mælník). The woods dominate the mountain areas and collectively cover a third of the country’s surface. The prevalent breeding is the pig one. However, the weight of the agricultural sector remains in the minority, since the C Republic is above all an industrial country, with strong production concentrations especially in Northern Bohemia, further strengthened by the entry into the country of foreign groups. Traditional carboniferous country, it obtains significant quantities of lignite from the basins of Ostrava, in Silesia Czech contiguous to Polish, and Northern Bohemia; in these areas a robust iron and steel factory was established and several lignite-fired thermal power stations were built. Energy is also obtained from imported Russian oil and from two nuclear power plants, which also use locally mined uranium. Finally, Czech Republic obtains small quantities of metal ores from the subsoil. Its industrial profile continues to be essentially that of a country that imports raw materials to export artefacts: from automobiles to traditional Bohemian crystal and porcelain, from musical instruments to fabrics from the northern foothills (Erzgebirge and Sudetes), up to footwear. The forestry economy feeds paper mills and furniture factories. A large part of the commercial relations of the Czech Republic takes place, as well as with Slovakia (a customs union agreement was signed between the two states from the beginning), with Germany. Tourism can rely on natural beauty, on the works of art and on the urban structure of the capital.
The Czech part of the western group of Slavic languages, akin to the Slovak and, to a lesser extent, to lusaziano and Polish. It is documented since the 13th century, when a literary language was formed which reached its apogee in the 14th century. In these two centuries the influence of the spoken language and the neighboring German language promoted innovations in phonetics, grammar and vocabulary. Considerable importance in the history of the language was the spelling reform of Jan Hus in the 15th century.