Cuba Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Cuba Basic Information


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Official name of the country: Republic of Cuba

Cuba is a socialist country ruled by a communist regime. On April 10, 2019, a new constitution was announced in Cuba, which for the first time since the Cuban revolution in 1959 introduces the functions of the president of the republic and the prime minister. President Miguel Díaz-Canel embodies the continuity of the communist leadership of his predecessors, the Castro brothers. The Cuban Constitution declares the Communist Party of Cuba as the “supreme leading political force of society and the state”, which declares the irrevocability of socialism and the revolutionary political and social system and the socialist character of the economic system. Check diseaseslearning to learn more about Cuba political system.

President of the country: Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez

Vice President: Salvador Valdés Mesa

Prime Minister: Manuel Marrero Cruz

6 Deputy Prime Ministers: Ramiro Valdés Menéndez, Jorge Luis Tapia Fonseca, Ricardo Cabriras Ruíz, Jorge Luis Perdomo Di-Lella, Inés María Chapman Waugh, Alejandro Gil Fernandez

Secretary: José Amado Ricardo Guerra

Council of Ministers:

Minister of Foreign Affairs: Bruno Rodríguez Parrilla

Minister of Foreign Trade and Investment: Rodrigo Malmierca Díaz

Minister of Health: José Ángel Portal Miranda

Minister of Construction: René Mesa Villafaña

Minister of Education: Ena Elsa Velázquez Cobiella

Minister of Economy and Planning: Alejandro Gil Fernández

Minister of Industry: Eloy Álvarez Martínez

Minister of Culture: Alpidio Alonso Grau

Minister of Communications: Mayra Arevich Marín

Minister of Defense: Álvaro López Miera

Minister of Energy and Mines: Liván Nicolás Arronte Cruz

Minister of Labor and Social Affairs: Marta Elena Feitó Cabrera

Minister of Internal Trade: Betsy Díaz Velázquez

Minister of Tourism: Juan Carlos García Granda

Minister of Finance and Prices: Meisi Bolaños Weiss

Minister of Transport: Eduardo Rodríguez Dávila

Minister of Science, Technology and Environment: Elba Rosa Pérez Montoya

Minister of the Interior: Lázaro Alberto Álvarez Casas

Minister of Food Production: Manuel Santiago Sobrino Martínez

Minister of Agriculture: Ydael Jesús Pérez Brito

Minister of Higher Education: José Ramón Saborido Loidi

Minister of Justice: Oscar Manuel Silveira Martínez

President of the Central Bank: Marta Sabina Wilson González

President of the National Institute of Hydraulic Resources: Antonio Rodríguez Rodríguez

President of the Institute of Sport, Physical Education and Recreation: Osvaldo Caridad Vento Montiller

President of the Cuban Institute of Radio and Television: Alfonso Noya Martínez

National Assembly of People’s Power (605 deputies in total)

President of the National Assembly: Esteban Lazo Hernández

Vice President of the National Assembly: Ana María Mari Machado

First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba: Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez

Foreign policy of the country

Cuba is a country with a very active foreign policy, both bilaterally (especially in the Latin American and Caribbean region) and multilaterally. It has diplomatic relations with 160 countries of the world.

The relationship with the United States of America has traditionally been a fundamental element of Cuban foreign policy. The Biden administration has not lifted any of the restrictive measures and sanctions against Cuba from the Trump era and has not generally changed its hard line against Cuba. An economic, trade and financial embargo has remained in force for more than 60 years, which significantly limits the import of goods, access to financing and investments, negatively affects the development of Cuban trade and has an impact on the development of tourism, which has long been the main source of foreign exchange earnings on the island. Cuba also remains on the US list of state sponsors of terrorism, and remittances from the US remain restricted. The goal of the US administration is to prevent the Cuban military from having the opportunity to control financial transactions thanks to its operation in the country’s economic structures, which should benefit the Cuban people. Application III also remains valid from May 2019. head of the Helms-Burton Act, which allows American citizens to sue entities that use properties seized after the Cuban Revolution in US courts. The application of this chapter of the law, despite its extraterritorial nature, brings legal uncertainty and has a deterrent effect on foreign companies interested in entering the Cuban market and has a negative impact on the financial community. Check themotorcyclers for Cuba defense and foreign policy.

After the fall of the socialist bloc, Cuba found itself isolated and lost the support of its biggest partner – the Soviet Union. It began to rely more on cooperation with Latin American countries, especially with members of the ALBA grouping (Bolivarian Union for the People of Our America), such as Venezuela, Bolivia and Nicaragua. Cuba continues to have an intense relationship with Venezuela, its traditional strategic partner, demonstrating continuity of support for the N. Maduro regime and continuing the intensity of bilateral visits. There are thousands of Cuban “collaborators” in Venezuela, both in the health sector and in the military and secret services. Venezuela is a vital supplier of oil to Cuba. Havana is also cultivating its traditional relations with ideological allies (Russia, China, Vietnam, North Korea, Angola, Iran).

Cuba has seamless historical ties with Spain, which maintains a constructive and friendly relationship with Cuba based on deep ties in areas such as trade, culture, shared history and migration factors.

Cuba is trying to maintain historical relations with African countries, especially in connection with the dispatch of Cuban doctors to most African countries to fight against COVID-19. Overall, during the pandemic, Cuba sent medical brigades to more than 40 countries in the world, e.g. Mexico, Venezuela, Panama, Peru, Angola, Kenya, South Africa, Guinea, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, Italy, etc. and developed several of its own vaccines against the coronavirus as a future source of foreign exchange and the possibility to develop trade relations with other countries.

At the multilateral level, Cuba continues its long-term active presence on the ground and in UN structures, especially within the G77 group.


Cuba has a total population of 1million. It is facing population decline due to the aging population and increasing emigration from the island. According to World Bank data, the average annual decrease in 2020 was – 0.061 per 1000 inhabitants. There is only Cuban nationality in Cuba. Cuban citizenship is acquired automatically by birth in the territory of Cuba.

Composition of the Cuban population: whites 64.1%, mulattoes 26.6% and blacks: 9.3%.

Religious composition: Christian 59.2%, atheists 23%, Afro-Cuban religions (santería), 17.4% others 0.4%