Colombia History During Colony

By | December 15, 2021

Established territorially thanks to the expedition of Gonzalo Jímenez de Quesada, who, having left Santa Marta on 6 April 1536, at the head of 600 men, had followed the course of the Magdalena river, conquering almost all the territory and the cities of Tunja, Bogotá and Iraca; and further increased by the Portuguese Francisco Cesar, of the region located to the west of the Magdalena River, the New Kingdom of Granata (as today’s Colombia was called), with its capital Santa Fe, embraced the vast area of ​​Santa Fe, Cartagena in the Spanish age., Santa Marta, Tunja, Muzo, Popayán and Antioquia. For more than a century and a half however (from 1564 to 1718), the New Grenade was not a vice-kingdom like Mexico and Peru, but only a Presidency (while from 1550 to 1564 the Real Audiencia created in Santa Fe in 1550 acted as government). For Colombia history, please check areacodesexplorer.com.

This period of Colombian history naturally has much in common with the history of the other Spanish colonies in South America. That is, the gradual expansion of colonization, through the foundation of cities and villages, and the work of the missions; economic and social domination of the encomenderos, with relative oppression of the indigenous people; attempts by some of the presidents, starting with the first, Andrés Díaz Venero de Leiva, to continue with Antonio González 11589) and, in the middle of the century. XVII, with Juan Fernández de Córdoba y Coalle, in order to render the condition of the Indians more human, to keep the encomenderos in check, in short, to apply in practice the charitable provisions of the Leyes de Indias. Alongside this, a certain impulse in favor of public education: either thanks to Juan Borja (1605-1618) who had a grammar of the Chibcha language written, or by the Fernández de Córdoba who founded a high school in Santa Fe; and thanks to the religious orders, Dominicans and Jesuits.

But there were also particular problems of the New Grenade, of another nature: the lack of security created by the population of the Pijaos, who in fact rebelled under the presidency of the Borja, and had to be subdued with weapons; but above all, the permanent danger represented, for the coastal area, by the English, French and Dutch adventurers and pirates. Cartagena was attacked by the French in 1544 and 1559, by Drake in 1586, by Ducasse and by De Pointis in 1634; and, from the middle of the century. XVII, the raids of the great pirates multiply, especially the famous Morgan. Against such attacks, the action of the presidents was scarce and ineffective.

The creation of the viceroyalty, which took place in 1718, became definitive only in 1740 (after a new period of presidency, from 1724 to 1739), albeit largely determined by purely fiscal reasons, in order to better centralize in the hands of the representative of the crown the revenues of the vast territory, however, marked a period of greater progress for the New Grenade (which was also extended within its territorial limits with the inclusion in it of the region of Quito, today’s Ecuador). A little because of the work of some of the 13 viceroys: as of Don Sebastian Eslava, first viceroy, who completed the construction of roads, and began others; of Don José Solís Folch de Cardona (1753) who had some streets opened, built the mint and a hospital in Santa Fe; by Don Pedro Mesia de la Cerda, Marquis de la Vega de Armijo (1761), who devoted his work to organizing the colony’s finances; of Don Manuel A. de Flórez, who having noted the difficulty of governing the distant provinces well (Guiana, Cumana, Maracaibo and the Margarita and Trinidad islands), invited the court of Madrid to aggregate these provinces to the general captaincy of Caracas, what it was done on 8 September 1777. But also for the action of private individuals, who had a particular influence on the intellectual development of the colony. Thus was the influence exerted by Don José Celestino Mutis, patriarch of Colombia, whose he invited the Madrid court to aggregate these provinces to the Caracas General Captaincy, which was done on 8 September 1777. But also for the action of private individuals, who had a particular influence on the intellectual development of the colony. Thus was the influence exerted by Don José Celestino Mutis, patriarch of Colombia, whose he invited the Madrid court to aggregate these provinces to the Caracas General Captaincy, which was done on 8 September 1777. But also for the action of private individuals, who had a particular influence on the intellectual development of the colony. Thus was the influence exerted by Don José Celestino Mutis, patriarch of Colombia, whose Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada promoted scientific studies in the country. Efforts by the rulers and the work of private individuals thus allowed the Nuova Granata to rival, with regard to the intellectual movement, with the most advanced Spanish colonies; and appeared, in the second half of the century. XVIII, the first newspapers (the Papel periódico de Santa Fe de Bogotá, then El Correo Curioso, El redacior Americano, El Semanario del Nuevo Reino de Granada); new colleges and educational institutions were created; theaters were created, such as the Coliseo of Bogotá; the most distinguished men (the Tertulia Eutrapetica, the Buen Gusto Circuit).

At the same time, the viceroyalty was progressing economically, favored in this by the work of the viceroys who, almost all of them, more or less, were concerned with opening new roads, building ports, aqueducts, establishing regular postal services. And while in the previous period, of the constituent countries of the New Grenade, the current Colombia – gold producer – had had an enormous advantage over Venezuela, now the creation of the Compañia Guipuzcoana de Caracas (1728) gave a vigorous impulse to the development of agriculture in the Venetian towns; until the suppression of the monopoly system and the advent of the free trade regime (1788) did not intervene to allow the full development of the productive activities. The work in the mines was activated and perfected: for this purpose the viceroy Don Antonio Caballero y Góngora obtained from Spain the sending of two mineralogists.

It was therefore in continuous progress. But the moral atmosphere of the colony was already changing in the face of the Spanish government. The uprising of the comuneros, which broke out in 1781 against the reinstatement of the Barlovento tax and the tightening of the rights of alcabala, and spread in the New Grenade, was appeased not by force, but by an agreement (le Capitulaciones de Zapaquira, of June 8, 1781), which satisfied the rebels’ requests. In the revolt, which was itself determined by a specific fact of an economic order, there was, however, the more serious fact that it had received nourishment from the news of the contemporary and significant rebellion of Túpac Amarú in Peru. And here, in the last decade of the century, more serious symptoms: the ideas of the French Revolution on Human Rights are spread in Santa Fe by Antonio Nariño, who is arrested and sent to Cadiz; the Negri di Coro rise up in 1795 to obtain the ley de los Franceses. Above all, however, the conflict between Spaniards and Creoles worsened: the latter, already unwilling for some time to admit the right of the king of Spain to the collection of taxes, are now openly agitated. In 1797, the first conspiracy promoted by José María España and Manuel Gual, who proclaimed the independence of Caracas, Maracaibo, Cumana and Guyana; and, among other things, the equality of all classes, with the consequent abolition of the slavery of Negroes. The revolt failed, and España was executed; the same fate awaited the conspiracy of Francisco Javier Pirela, in 1799.

Colombia During Colony