Colombia Education and Military

By | December 15, 2021

Public education. – Public education, based on the national constitution, is organized according to Catholic principles.

Primary education, free and compulsory, is given in around 7,000 schools, mostly maintained by the departments. Secondary education is given in three types of schools: normal schools which aim to prepare teachers for teaching in primary schools, and which are in total 14; the so-called colegios (about 60) from which one obtains a bachelor’s degree in science and a bachelor’s degree in philosophy and literature, which give access to the university; business schools. There are also various industrial schools, a school of fine arts (Bogotá), a national music conservatory (Bogotá). Higher education is supervised directly by the central government. The National University of Bogotá, founded in 1867, consists of the faculties of medicine, natural sciences, law and political science, mathematics and engineering. Minor universities are also in Medellín (Universidad de Antioquia: law and political sciences, medicine and natural sciences), in Cartagena (Universidad de Bolívar: law and political sciences, medicine and natural sciences), in Popayán (Univ. Del Cauca: law, natural sciences, mathematics, veterinary and agriculture), in Pasto (Univ. de Nariño ; law and political science). In Bogotá, moreover, there is the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, founded in 1652, with the faculties of philosophy and literature, law and political science; and a free university, founded in 1923, with the faculties of law and political science, mathematics and engineering. Medellín, in addition to the university, has a high school of agronomy, a high school of veterinary and a mining school.

The major public libraries are: the National Library, with 120,000 volumes, the library dell ‘ Academia Colombiana de la Lengua, that of’ Academia Nacional de Historia (15,000 volumes) and the Colegio Mayor de N. S. del Rosario, all in Bogotá. Also noteworthy are the libraries of the various universities.

Army. – War budget: gold pesos 7,289,000, equal to Italian lire 134,117,000 and 16% of the general budget. Balanced force, officers 500, troop 8000. For employment, the army depends on the president of the republic, for the remainder by the Ministry of War. It includes: 12 infantry regiments, 2 cavalry regiments, 2 artillery groups, 4 engineering battalions; schools (for recruiting officers and non-commissioned officers, for aviation, for warfare); services. Upon complete implementation of the current system, the regiments will become 15, the artillery groups 5, the engineering battalions 13. Troops and services are grouped variously into 5 mixed divisions. Military service is compulsory; the quota is incorporated on the basis of a drawing of lots. Stop for a year. Service obligation: duration 24 years (21st-31st active army; 31st -41th national guard; 41st -45th territorial guard). The educated reserves amount to about 60,000 men. For Colombia military, please check militarynous.com.

Navy. – Colombia has no navy, but only a few gunboats for coastal and river surveillance.

Military aviation. – There is no real military aviation. However, since 1919 there has been an aviation school dependent on the ministry of war; about 20 army officers are trained there annually. The school is located in Bogotá. The actual staff of the school is about 90 men, of which 4 are officers.

Finances.

The financial regime of Colombia was radically modified in 1923 when, under the leadership of the Kemmerer commission, the reform of the financial system and the establishment of a national bank of issue were also provided. Following the reorganization of the collection and administration of revenue, and the creation of a general body for the control of expenditure, the budget has undergone a notable improvement. Here are the overall figures of ordinary income and expenses according to the balance sheet for the years 1925-29 and the budget for 1930:

And here is also the analysis of the 1929 budget: which indicates the major income and principal expenses.

The external public debt as of January 1, 1929 was a total of 160 million gold pesos, of which 70 were borne by the central government, 65 by the departments and 25 by the cities. The internal national debt, on the same date, was 11.7 million pesos and that of the departments and cities 20.7.

The monetary unit has been the weight of gold since 1907, equivalent to one fifth of a pound sterling.

Since the Banco de la República was established, with the exclusive right to issue notes convertible into gold and with the obligation to have a reserve equal to 60% of the circulation and deposits and to devote part of its profits to the withdrawal of the old inconvertible paper money, the currency of Colombia has remained very good. The banknotes itself, in circulation as of July 31, 1929, amounted to 45 million pesos.

Colombia Education