Colombia 1948

By | December 15, 2021

According to new assessments, the area of ​​the Colombia is 1,139,155 sq km. divided into the various administrative divisions according to the measure shown in the attached table.

The total population of the republic from 7,850,600 residents (1928) rose, according to the 1938 census, to 8,701,816 residents, showing an absolute increase of 851,216 units with an average annual percentage of 1.08%. The density from 6.8 residents per sq. km. it rose to 7.6 residents per sq. km. Later evaluations show that the population is constantly increasing: in 1946 it reached 10,289,544 residents with a density of 9.0 residents per sq. km.

Economic conditions, communications, trade (X, p. 787 and App. I, p. 442). – Coffee continues to be the most important product 3,651,784 q. in 1946, followed by bananas which in 1946 were exported for 400,000 q. The livestock is made up of 12,334,000 cattle (1945), 1,279,000 horses (1944), 900,000 sheep (1944), 434,000 goats (1944), 2,500,000 pigs (1946), 537,000 mules (1944), 314,000 donkeys (1944). For Colombia 2002, please check commit4fitness.com.

The greatest industrial progress is found in the cotton field; 133,000 spindles and 4,854 looms are currently working. The production of oil which from 10,000 t. 1921, it rose to 3.2 million tonnes in 1946. Trade, no longer active since 1942, shows increases both in imports (1942: 104.9 million pesos; 1946: 403.0 million pesos) and in exports (1942: 170.9 million pesos; 1946: 351, 8 million pesos).

Finance (X, p. 794 and App. I, 442). – The figures from the financial statements from 1939 to 1948 are shown below:

At the end of February 1948, the internal public debt amounted to 334 million and the external debt, in dollars and pounds, to 148.5 million. The favorable trend in the balance of payments during the war years made it possible to build up strong gold and foreign exchange reserves at the Banco de la República, which peaked at 328 million pesos in February 1946. Subsequently, however, the strong imports, favored by the government as an anti-inflationary measure, have significantly reduced these reserves, so as to induce the foreign exchange authorities to tighten the control of exchange rates and limit the granting of foreign exchange to varying percentages depending on the type of goods to be imported. In November 1939 the golden content of the weight Colombian was fixed at 0.507816 grams of fine, corresponding to an exchange rate of 1.75 pesos per dollar. The same parity was communicated to the International Monetary Fund, in which Colombia participates with a share of 50 million dollars. However, a complex system of multiple changes exists in the country. As of April 30, 1948, circulation amounted to 298 million (December 1939: 82 million) hedged with gold reserves and divided into 164 million; total deposits with commercial banks reached 394 million, of which 381 million at sight.

History (X, p. 795 and App. I, p. 443). – Under the liberal Eduardo Santos, elected president on May 2, 1938 and entered into office on August 7, important public works were carried out, including the expansion of the port of Barranquilla and the oil pipeline of more than 400 km. from Barco to Puerto Covenas (on the Caribbean Sea). On June 3, a commercial agreement was concluded, on the principle of compensated exchanges, with Italy; on July 16, Colombia gave notice of its withdrawal from the League of Nations. The agreement with Venezuela for borders and free river navigation was dated April 15, 1941.

At the outbreak of the war in Europe, Colombia declared itself neutral; but in May 1940 the Sociedad Columbiano-Alemana de Transportes Aéreos (SCADTA) was nationalized, removing the German pilots. Colombia supported the United States in the inter-American conferences, to which – breaking relations with Japan, Germany and Italy in December 1941 (whose entry into the war caused riots in Bogotá) – granted, as a continental power, the treatment of not – belligerent, obtaining loans for public works; he intensified the production of rubber, took measures against the Axis nationals. On the other hand, German agents announced that victorious Germany would “return” Panama to a friendly Colombia; and their propaganda reinforced the criticisms leveled at the government by the conservative Laureano Gómez, joined by the liberal opponents of Alfonso López Pumarejo. He intended to reappear as presidential candidate in 1942, which led to a split in the party. He was elected, and formed a cabinet of liberal concentration; an agreement with the Holy See was approved in 1943 and diplomatic relations with the USSR were established in February; the sinking of Colombian ships prompted the declaration of war on Germany in November. In January 1944, Colombia signed the UN declaration. But the difficult internal economic situation (foodstuffs scarce, coffee production costs increased but not the purchase price by the United States) and, consequently, politics (workers’ unrest and riots) prompted López to resign in May, which was immediately rejected. Having repressed an attempt (July) at a military revolt by Colonel D. Gielle, the new labor code was promulgated in September, which sanctioned measures for the arbitration of disputes, minimum wages, paid holidays, insurance against accidents and illnesses, right to organize ; and in October a provision for the expropriation and subdivision of the large estates. right to organize; and in October a provision for the expropriation and subdivision of the large estates. right to organize; and in October a provision for the expropriation and subdivision of the large estates.

The political tension persisted in 1945 due to the struggle between the conservatives and the liberals and the disagreements between them, divided between the supporters of the presidential candidacies of Echandía (later retired), Gabriel Turbay, cultured writer and diplomat, who became the official candidate, and by José Eliecer Gaitán, proclaimed independent candidate. Nonetheless, the Liberals triumphed in the parliamentary elections in March and then in the administrative elections; the Socialist Democratic (Communist) party increased its deputies from 1 to 5. Meanwhile, new social measures were sanctioned, and a five-year plan for agriculture; the resumption of imports, creating an unfavorable trade balance, forced the establishment of exchange control; retired for health reasons the López in August 1945, replaced him,

In the elections of May 5, 1946, the split of the liberals gave the victory to the conservative candidate, Mariano Ospina Pérez who, having entered office on August 7, was able to establish a cabinet only in December, with 6 conservatives and 6 liberals. Colombia concluded an economic agreement with Canada on February 21, based on the most favored nation clause. The progress of the rayon industry was remarkable, which with the new plants designed in Barranquilla (from 1,400,000 brought to 3,600,000 kg. Per year) and Medellin (for 3 million kg.) Aspired to the primacy in South American production, and building development; large projects were made for hydroelectric plants (from 120,000 to 650,000 kw. installed) and plans for the production of 100,000 t. annual between cast iron and steel. However the the rise in the cost of living and the economic difficulties of transport caused discontent which manifested itself in workers’ unrest. The general elections of March 1947 again gave the liberals prevalence in parliament, who, after Turbay died, recognized the Gaitán as their leader, increasingly opposed to collaboration with the conservatives. The Ospina barely managed to form a new ministry on the usual basis in April; and, rejecting in January 1948 a list of complaints presented by the Gaitán, he had to resort to repressive systems, hastening the crisis. This broke out as Bogotá welcomed delegates to the Ninth Inter-American Conference. On Friday 9 April the Gaitán was killed in Bogotá by an individual who, immediately lynched by the crowd, was so disfigured that he could not be identified. The riots from Bogotá extended to Medellin, Tunja and Cali. On the afternoon of the 10th, after the Ospina resigned, the new government of 6 liberals and 6 conservatives, plus General Germán Ocampo, under the presidency of D. Echandía, proclaimed a state of siege; but until the 12th the riots and acts of violence continued (there were about 250 dead and 1250 wounded) which were attributed to the instigation or intervention of Russian agents (it was said that they wanted to attempt the life of the US Secretary of State General GC Marshall, present in Bogotá for the Inter-American conference), however promptly denied by the Moscow radio. However, relations with the USSR broke off in May. In August it was announced that Colombia and the United States would jointly study the construction of an interoceanic canal, some 400 km. to SE.

Colombia elections