Colombia 1938

By | December 15, 2021

The figure of the total population of the republic of the 1928 census has been corrected, by later determinations, in 7.380.000 residents An estimate in January 1935 brings this population up to 8,442,600 residents, And one in June 1937, to 8,847,000 residents The table opposite shows the population of the various administrative divisions in 1935.

The area planted with coffee increased in 1936 to 358,000 hectares, from which 2,235,000 q. of product. The export of bananas in 1935 had dropped to 1,555,400 q. Great development has taken the cultivation of maize, which in 1935 covered an area five times greater than that of 1928 (555,000 ha.) And gave over 5 million q. of product. There was a slight increase in the cultivation of sugar cane (107,000 ha. And 326,000 q. In 1935-36) and cotton (15,000 ha. And 30,000 q. Of fiber in 1934-35); those of cocoa and tobacco are almost stationary.

In 1934 the Colombian livestock patrimony was made up as follows: 8,337,000 cattle, 972,000 horses, 475,000 mules, 303,000 donkeys, 872,000 sheep, 544,000 goats, 1,622,000 pigs. For Colombia 1997, please check aristmarketing.com.

Gold had the greatest increase in mining products (12,091 kg. In 1936: almost six times the production in 1928); the production of petroleum (2,613,000 tons in 1936), and almost stationary those of platinum (1703 kg. exported in 1934), of silver and coal, increased slightly.

Of the industries, the cotton mill made notable progress (55,000 spindles and 1,900 looms in 1936).

The development of the railway lines in operation was 3192 km in 1935; another 2800 km. are under construction. Through the port of Buenaventura, on the Pacific, 25% of Colombian foreign trade now passes, which after 1929 suffered, due to the serious world economic crisis, a strong contraction in both exports and imports (minimum in 1932, 70.3 million pesos for the former and 30.6 million for the latter), resulting in a rapid recovery from 1933 onwards (in 1936, 136.8 million pesos for exports, 120.1 million for imports).

On 7 July 1937 the diocese of Barranquilla was created, a suffragan of Cartagena. With 1931 the apostolic prefecture of Sinú changed its name to San Jorge.

The economic situation is fundamentally solid but closely linked to coffee, so much so that the fall in the prices of this has affected the prosperity achieved.

At December 31, 1937, the external debt amounted to 111 million and the internal debt to 81 million (53 of which consolidated).

After the fall of the pound, the peso was pegged to the dollar at a ratio of 1.05 = $ 1: a ratio that changed in favor of the peso as a result of the American devaluation, but which soon felt the repercussions of the coffee crisis and inflation (related to the budget imbalance and the conflict with Peru). Since the end of 1935 the official ratio has fluctuated around 1.70 pesos = 1 dollar. On April 6, 1935, the reserves of the Banco della Repubblica (currently legal limit of 30%) were revalued on the basis of the new gold price in New York and the new peso exchange rate. On 1 August 1935 the demonetization of silver was decreed. The change control has been modified several times and has been in force since September 1931.

As of December 31, 1937, notes (from the bank and the state) in circulation amounted to 61 million (reserve: 10 million in gold and 6.5 in foreign currencies). The banking system has been central reserve on the American type since 1923. The main credit institutions are the Bank of Bogotá (1871), the Bank of Colombia (1875) and the Banco Aleman Antiqueño (1912).

History

The most salient political episode in the history of Colombia in recent years was the conflict with Peru over the possession of Porto Letizia on the Amazon River. In fact, in the night from 1 to 2 September 1932 Peruvian armed bands occupied that city, expelling the Colombian authorities and fortifying the invaded region. The Lima government, while proclaiming itself a stranger to events and proposing the arbitration of an international commission in Washington, expressed its sympathy for the occupiers. Colombia, while sending forces to retake the region, appealed to the League of Nations which initially recommended that Peru not perform any act that could prejudice Colombia’s rights to enforce sovereignty over its territory (February 4, 1933), then later, through a resolution voted unanimously by the Council, it approved the report of the Three (Ireland, Spain, Guatemala) consisting in directly taking possession of the territory of Porto Letizia after the evacuation of the Peruvian forces, having at its disposal Colombian forces acting as international troops. While the Colombian government approved this solution, Peru rejected it (March 18, 1933). An advisory committee was then formed consisting of representatives of Germany, China, Spain, France, Guatemala, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Norway, Panama, Poland and Czechoslovakia with the collaboration of United States and Brazil; committee that succeeded on May 25, 1933 in having the representatives of the two states in conflict sign an act by which both accepted the proposals formulated on the previous March 18. A commission composed of three delegates (Brazilian cap. Lemos Basto, Spanish cap. Iglesias, North American col. Brown) took possession of the disputed territory previously evicted, while under the auspices of Brazil a conference was opened in Rio de Janeiro which on 24 May 1934 resolved all outstanding issues. In this way, on 22 June the territory of Porto Letizia was returned to Colombia, the commission was dissolved and on 30 September 1935 the government of Bogotá ratified the agreement concluded. Brazilian Lemos Basto, cap. Spanish Iglesias, col. Brown of North America) took possession of the disputed territory previously evicted, while under the auspices of Brazil a conference was opened in Rio de Janeiro which on May 24, 1934 resolved all the pending issues. In this way, on 22 June the territory of Porto Letizia was returned to Colombia, the commission was dissolved and on 30 September 1935 the government of Bogotá ratified the agreement concluded. Brazilian Lemos Basto, cap. Spanish Iglesias, col. Brown of North America) took possession of the disputed territory previously evicted, while under the auspices of Brazil a conference was opened in Rio de Janeiro which on May 24, 1934 resolved all the pending issues. In this way, on 22 June the territory of Porto Letizia was returned to Colombia, the commission was dissolved and on 30 September 1935 the government of Bogotá ratified the agreement concluded.

While no notable warfare took place during the brief conflict, Colombia ordered the mobilization of all men aged 20 to 45 (February 22, 1933), thus incurring a substantial expense that forced the government to enact a moratorium on all foreign debts (June 27, 1933). From 1 August 1936 rules were introduced to restrict imports from abroad.

After Miguel Abadía Méndez, in 1930, Olaya Herrera (1930-1934) was elected president and at the end of the four-year period Alfonso Lopez, of the liberal party, was appointed, who resigned on 1 June 1937, but having been rejected by the Senate, he has resumed his duties.

Miguel Abadía Méndez