China Road Network

By | November 20, 2022

According to wholevehicles, China’s road network consists of four layers;

  • G for Guodao or China National Highways
  • S for Shengdao or provincial roads
  • X for Xiandao or districts
  • A for local roads

G, S and X roads become municipal roads in built-up areas. The road then changes from the management of the Gonglu (public road authority) to the Shizheng (municipal road authority).

Expressways

The Guangkun Expressway (G80) in Guangxi.

Highways, China’s expressways have national G-route numbering and provincial/regional S-route numbering. China’s expressway network, also known as the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS), covered approximately 149,600 kilometers of highway on January 1, 2020. At the end of 2013, China’s highway network became the longest in the world, overtaking the United States.in. The system is relatively new and is growing at a phenomenal rate, before 1988 there was not a single highway. The highway network forms a grid in eastern China, especially the area east of the Himalayas and south of the Gobi Desert. In addition, there are a number of highways that also lead to other parts, such as the highway to the border with Kazakhstan, a highway to Tibet and a number of highways in northeast China.

The current highway network is densest in central eastern China, roughly between Beijing, Xi’an, Chengdu and Shanghai and in the Guangzhou region. In southeastern China, most of the routes were built later and partially unfinished, especially the east-west highways and regional highways. The western two-thirds of the country has significantly fewer planned highways, only one route to Tibet and two routes to Xinjiang, which branches off in a number of other directions west of Ürümqi.

There are plans for major river crossings to Hainan Island, to Taiwan and across the Yellow Sea between Yantai and Dalian. Highway crossings are planned with most neighboring countries except where the Himalayas are located. However, there are highway border crossings with Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, North Korea, Russia, Mongolia and Kazakhstan, where on the other side of the border rarely a highway continues into neighboring countries. There is also a highway that serves the border area with North Korea at Dandong.

Almost all expressways are toll roads. In 2013, the average construction cost of 1 kilometer of expressway was €12 million.

In the construction of expressways, there are often two different opening dates, an official opening is often preceded by a test opening. That is often at least a few weeks, but sometimes six months before the official opening. In such cases there are often restrictions, for example that the highway can only be driven between 6 am and 10 pm and only for passenger cars before the official opening follows.

The network of expressways is numbered in a grid, plus 7 radial routes from Beijing. The radial routes are numbered G1 to G7 and the grid has even numbers for east-west routes (G10 to G80) and odd numbers for north-south routes (G11 to G85). Numbers above 90 are major regional ring roads, usually hundreds of kilometers in length. There are also branches and regional routes with 4 digits. The first two digits of these are based on their main route, so the G8511 is related to the G85. In addition, there are also ring roads numbered with a 4-digit number. However, there are no 3 digit numbers for expressways, although occasionally expressways are numbered based on their China National Highway number, which are 3 digits.

The network is systematically indicated by a number code that represents the number of routes. The original 2005 network was called the 7918 network, which is a grid of 7 radial highways from Beijing, 9 north-south routes and 18 east-west routes. In 2013, it was renamed the 71118 network when the number of north-south routes was expanded from 9 to 11, with the addition of the G59 and G69. Along with these national routes, the auxiliary routes were also adapted, ie the branches and regional connections with 4 digits. A further renumbering was carried out in 2019 whereby road numbers with a letter suffix(E, W, N, S) were renamed to a 4 digit number and the ring roads were given a unique 4 digit number, before that some ring road numbers appeared in several places in China, most prominently the G1501, which formed ring roads of cities on the route of the G15. In 2022, the numbering of the expressways was again significantly expanded, with a large number of new routes added, which partly already existed as provincial expressways.

National Expressways in China
G1 • G2 • G3 • G4 • G5 • G6 • G7 • G10 • G11 • G12 • G15 • G16 • G18 • G20 • G22 • G25 • G30 • G35 • G36 • G40 • G42 • G45 • G50 • G55 • G56 • G59 • G60 •G65 • G69 • G70 • G72 • G75 • G76 • G78 • G80 • G85 • G91 • G92 • G93 • G94 • G95 • G98 • G99List of expressways in China

China National Highways

See China National Highways.

The main road network of non-motorways in China is made up of the National Highways. The roads have the prefix G and have three digits. G stands for guójiā and means “national”. This network is dense in the east and thinner in the sparsely populated west of China, although they are the only through roads, especially in the west, as there are no highways here. In 2004 the length of this network was 1,871,000 kilometers.

China National Highways
Radians from Beijing:101 • 102 • 103 • 104 • 105 • 106 • 107 • 108 • 109 • 110 • 111 • 112

North-south routes:

201 • 202 • 203 • 204 • 205 • 206 • 207 • 208 • 209 • 210 • 211 • 212 • 213 • 214 • 215 • 216 • 217 • 218 • 219 • 220 • 221 • 222 • 223 • 224 • 225 • 227 • 228• 229 • 230 • 231 • 232 • 233 • 234 • 235 • 236 • 237 • 238 • 239 • 240 • 241 • 242 • 243 • 244 • 245 • 246 • 247 • 248

East-west routes:

301 • 302 • 303 • 304 • 305 • 306 • 307 • 308 • 309 • 310 • 311 • 312 • 314 • 315 • 316 • 317 • 318 • 319 • 320 • 321 • 322 • 323 • 324 • 325 • 326 • 327 • 328• 329 • 330 • 331 • 332 • 333 • 334 • 335 • 336 • 337 • 338 • 339 • 340 • 341 • 342 • 343 • 344 • 345 • 346 • 347 • 348 • 349 • 350 • 351 • 352 • 353 • 354 •355 • 356 • 357 • 358 • 359 • 360 • 361

Other roads

The rest are local and regional roads, and are often unpaved, especially further outside urban areas. They connect all villages and regional towns and form a network of another 1.5 million kilometers of roads, not all of which are paved. Major roads are also not paved in some areas.

Asian Highways

Asian Highways in China
AH1 • AH3 • AH4 • AH5 • AH6 • AH9 • AH14 • AH31 • AH32 • AH33 • AH34 • AH35 • AH42 • AH61 • AH65 • AH67 • AH68 • AH368 • AH374

History

Originally there were plans for 35,000 kilometers of main roads, of which 5 east-west and 7 north-south routes, which would consist of 70% highways. This project was supposed to be completed in 2020, but was already completed in 2007, 13 years ahead of schedule. Before the 1990s, China had a limited road network, few paved roads and isolated rural areas. After the 1970s, China started to develop strongly, but it was not until 1986 before the first expressway, the Jingshi Expressway, was built. China’s oldest expressway is named as the Hujia Expressway in Shanghai, which opened on October 31, 1988. By the early 1990s, several highways had been completed, especially around Beijing and Shanghai. Until the end of the 1990s, the motorway network was relatively limited, in 1998 4,771 kilometers of motorway had been opened. After that, a rapid growth in construction began. The highway network doubled in one year to 8,733 kilometers in 1999. Between 1998 and 2007, more than 4,000 kilometers of highway were opened per year, 6,000 kilometers were opened in 2003 and in 2007 almost 9,000 kilometers of highways were opened. In 2010, the highway network was 65,000 kilometers long.

The construction of motorways in China is different than in Europe or North America. Long stretches are often built simultaneously, usually at least 50 kilometers, but projects of more than 150 kilometers that are opened in one go are also not uncommon. Many highways open to traffic at the end of December, often several highways open in a province in one day, so that sometimes as much as 1,000 kilometers of highway are opened in one day. Characteristic of Chinese road construction is that this is carried out by the provinces, the highways are built up to the provincial border and sometimes there is a highway that ends at the border for years, waiting for the part in the neighboring province to open. Toll stations are also often located on the provincial border.

The first highways were mainly constructed with 2×2 lanes, around Beijing, Shanghai and occasionally in other cities, partly directly with 2×3 lanes. After 2010, several highways were widened, sometimes over hundreds of kilometers in succession. Various highways were immediately widened from 2×2 to 2×4 lanes. In some cases, the highway has been completely closed to traffic, completely demolished and rebuilt with 2×4 lanes. Where this was not possible, a second highway was built parallel to the old highway. The bypassed highways were often constructed in the 1990s or early 2000s with outdated design requirements.

The construction time of the Chinese highways is usually between 3 and 4 years, only for mountain sections with many or long tunnels the construction time is a few years longer. Delays are not so obvious in road projects, and are usually limited to a year at most.

In addition to the large number of new highways, the country also breaks world records one after another with bridges and viaducts, China has the one longest bridge over sea, the Hangzhou Bay Bridge with 35.7 kilometers, the Xihoumen Bridge, the second longest. suspension bridge with a main span of 1,650 meters, the Beipanjiang Bridge which is 564 meters above the valley, the Siduhe Bridge which hangs 496 meters above the river, the Sutong Bridge is the second longest cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1,088 meters, the Chaotianmen Bridge is the longest arch bridge with 1,741 meters of main span. The Zhongnanshan Tunnelwas the longest two-tube tunnel in the world at 18 kilometers between 2007 and 2015.

The country invested about $18 billion a year in the highway network between 2005 and 2010. After 2010, it was planned to drop to $12 billion a year as the highway network became significantly completed. At the time, the entire network was planned to cost about US$240 billion.

Development

Dates on December 31.

Year Length
1988 0
1989 147
1990 271
1991 522
1992 574
1993 652
1994 1.145
1995 1.603
1996 2.141
1997 3.422
1998 8.733
1999 11,605
2000 16,314
2001 19,437
2002 25.130
2003 29.745
2004 34,300
2005 41.005
2006 45,339
2007 53,913
2008 60,302
2009 65.055
2010 74.113
2011 84,946
2012 97,355
2013 105,615
2014 111,950
2015 125,373
2016 131,000
2017 136,500
2018 142,500
2019 149,600
2020 161,000
2021 169,000

Widenings

In China, the first highways were mainly constructed with 2×2 lanes until the mid-2000s. Since about 2005, some newly constructed highways with 2×3 lanes have been built directly, especially in the densely populated provinces in eastern China. From 2010, major projects began to widen hundreds of kilometers of highways sequentially, often directly from 2×2 to 2×4 lanes. For example, the Jinggang’ao Expressway (G4) was completely widened to 2×4 lanes over almost 1,000 kilometers between 2010 and 2015 by the provinces of Hubei and Henan. These immense widening projects have been implemented very quickly, in some cases the highway has been completely closed off, demolished and rebuilt with a wider cross section.

Other highways that have been widened to 2×4 lanes over great distances include the Shenhai Expressway (G15) in Liaoning and the Lianhuo Expressway (G30) through large parts of Henan and Shaanxi provinces. In some cases it is difficult to widen narrow 2×2 highways through small towns, in some cases a new route has been constructed parallel to the old highway. This has happened, for example, in Shaanxi west and east of Xi’an and in Jiangsu around Yangzhou and Nanjing.

In addition, some highways with 2×2 lanes were built in the 1990s through mountainous areas, especially in southeastern China. These highways often have outdated design elements and alignment, which is why in various cases it was decided to build a parallel highway over a more modern route. This has also happened in the coal-rich regions west of Beijing, where several parallel highways have been built. In Inner Mongolia, the 265-kilometre Xingba Expressway, specifically designed for 100-ton trucks, has been constructed.

Future

The highway network in China will continue to expand substantially, although the largest cities are now connected by highways, there are still countless cities of 100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants that are not connected by highway. A large number of highways will also be built in the less populated north, as well as new routes to Kazakhstan and Mongolia.

China also wants to build a bridge to Taiwan, although the chances of it being built soon are slim. There are also plans for a bridge to Hainan Island and between Yantai and Dalian across the Yellow Sea. These are bridges of 100 kilometers or more in length.

In 2013, China overtook the United States and Europe in terms of the length of its highway network. There are currently 97,000 kilometers of highway in the United States.

China is active worldwide in developing infrastructure through the Belt and Road Initiative.

Bridges

China became known after 2000 for the many records broken with the construction of countless bridges on a scale never seen before. In Southwest China in particular, highways have been built through extremely difficult terrain, requiring numerous large bridges. A large number of the tallest bridges in China are located in Guizhou Province, which had more than 80 bridges over 100 meters in height in 2016, almost all of which opened between 2008 and 2016, including the world record, the Beipanjiang Bridge Duge of which the bridge deck is 564 meters above the valley floor, more than twice as high as the Viaduc de Millau in France.

High bridges

The Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge.

From the 19th century, the record of the tallest bridge was in Europe for a long time (Pont de la Caille), briefly in Africa (Pont de Sidi Rached in Constantine, now Algeria, then an integral part of France) and then in the United States for a long time. States (Royal Gorge Bridge). In 2001, the Liuguanghe Bridge in Guizhou opened, with a height of 297 the tallest bridge in the world until 2003, when a bridge over the Beipanjiang of the two-lane Guangxing Highway opened in that same province. Between 2005 and 2009, the record was temporarily set in Papua New Guinea, where a pipeline bridge was higher, but returned to China in 2009 when the Siduhe Bridge in Hubei Provinceopened, with a bridge deck that is 496 meters above the valley floor. As of 2016, the Beipanjiang Bridge Duge was the tallest bridge in the world, located on the border of Guizhou and Yunnan. Just a few kilometers from this bridge, the second highest bridge opened in 2015, the Puli Bridge. The Beipangjiang River in Guizhou has a large number of extremely high bridges, as the river runs mostly in a deep gorge.

Long bridges

In addition to high bridges, China has built many long bridges, both in terms of main span and overall length. In 2011, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge opened near Qingdao, which was mistakenly listed by the Guinness Book of Records as the longest bridge in the world. In 2005, the 32.5-kilometre Donghai Bridge opened near Shanghai. The 36.7 kilometer long Hangzhou Bay Bridge opened not far from there as early as 2007. In the Pearl River Delta, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge opened in 2018, which also has a tunnel section, and is therefore not the longest bridge in the world. It is the longest river crossing in the world with a length of almost 50 kilometers. Other very long bridges are the 26.5 kilometer long Jintang Bridge, the 15.8 km long Quanzhou Bay Bridge and the 10 km long Jiashao Bridge.

Longest main spans

China also set records for the longest main span of various bridge types. Opened in 2008, the Sutong Bridge in Jiangsu was the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world for some time. The Edong Bridge near Wuhan, which opened in 2010, was the second longest cable-stayed bridge in the world when it opened. In terms of suspension bridges, China has not yet set a world record. The Humen Second Bridge is set to become the second longest suspension bridge in the world. The Xihoumen Bridge near Ningbo, opened in 2009, was the longest suspension bridge in China for some time. The Aizhai Bridge in Hunan was the highest suspension bridge in the world with a height of 350 meters. China did have a world record with theTaizhou Bridge, which was the longest two-span suspension bridge of 2 x 1,080 meters in the world. There are many very large bridges over the Yangtze. In 2009, the Chaotianmen Bridge, the longest arch bridge in the world, opened in Chongqing. Between 2003 and 2009, the Lupu Bridge in Shanghai was the longest arch bridge in the world. The Beipanjiang Bridge at Qinglong in Guizhou which opened in 2016 is the longest concrete arch bridge in the world. The record was previously set in China. The Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge in Chongqing is the longest box girder bridge in the world with a span of 330 meters.

Tunnels

China has built numerous long tunnels since 2005. However, China has built fewer record tunnels than record bridges.

The first longer tunnels were all at Huixian in western Henan Province. In 1994, the Zhongliangshan Tunnel opened in Chongqing, marking the first time a highway tunnel was the longest in China. After that, the length evolved quite gradually, with longer tunnels being opened frequently, but the superlative came in 2007 when the Zhongnanshan Tunnel opened in Shaanxi, south of Xi’an. This tunnel has also held the record for longest tunnel in China so far. What is special is that this tunnel was more than twice as long as the previous record. In Gansu, the 22.6-kilometer-long Chagangliang Tunnel is planned, part of the Pingmian Expressway(G8513). In addition, proposals have been made for tunnels under the Bohai Sea from Liaoning to Shandong or from Fujian to Taiwan, but these tunnel proposals are not very realistic. After 2005, dozens of tunnels longer than 7 kilometers were constructed.

A chronological overview of China’s longest tunnels:

Tunnel Length Location away
2007 – present Zhongnanshan Tunnel 18,020 m Shaanxi, Xi’an-Zhashui Baomao Expressway (G65)
2006 – 2007 Fangdoushan Tunnel 7,605 m Chongqing, Shizhu Huyu Expressway (G50)
2004 – 2006 Meigulin Tunnel 5,580 m Fujian, Minqing – Youxi Fuyin Expressway (G70)
2003 – 2004 Yanmenguan Tunnel 5,235 m Shanxi, Daixian Erguang Expressway (G55)
2000 – 2003 Huayingshan Tunnel 4,706 m Sichuan, Huaying – Linshui Hurong Expressway (G42)
1999 – 2000 Erlangshan Tunnel 4.176 m Sichuan, Tianquan – Luding G318
1998 – 1999 Daxiling Tunnel 4.116 m Zhejiang, Wenling – Yueqing Shenhai Expressway (G15)
1994 – 1998 Zhongliangshan Tunnel 3,160 m Chongqing, Jiulongpo – Shapingba Yinkun Expressway (G85)
1987 – 1994 Gushan Tunnel 3,138 m Fujian, Fuzhou G104
1983 – 1987 Tielimati Tunnel 1,897 m Xinjiang, Kuqa – Hejing G217
1980 – 1983 Shenglidong Tunnel 1,740 m Henan, Huixian
1972 – 1980 Xiangyang Tunnel 1,400 m Henan, Huixian S229
1969 – 1972 Yugong Tunnel 810 m Henan, Huixian S229

Signage

A signpost on the Shenhai Expressway (G15) in Guangdong.

Aside from the Jingshi Expressway, China’s oldest highway, signage is usually (but not always consistent) in both Chinese and English. The signage consists of white capital letters on green signs, similar to the United States or Japan.

The Chinese characters take up relatively little space horizontally, but in order to make them legible they are written in large script. At the same time, the English text is often small. Translations of warnings or other information often have spelling mistakes or crooked English.

Turns are posted well in advance, at 3000, 2000, 1000 and 500 meters, except when turns are closer together, especially in urban areas. After the exit, the next exit(s) are also indicated with a distance indication. In urban areas, there are signposts pointing to the intersecting highways within a reasonable distance such as 20 to 30 kilometers.

Electronic signs are common and provide information about traffic conditions or recommendations such as wearing seat belts or respecting the speed limit.

Exit numbering

The Ring Expressway (G0601) of Yinchuan with exit numbering.

Almost all highways have exit numbers, since the beginning of highway construction in China. A sequential exit numbering system was originally introduced, which was later adapted to an exit numbering by distance.

Some exits have a suffix such as A or B. The exit numbering transcends county boundaries, so long highways have four-digit exit numbers. Relatively few mapmakers indicate exit numbers, but they are signposted. An exit is indicated by the characters 出口 (Chukou) and then the exit number. The exit number is indicated in a white oval with green letters.

Naming

An expressway is called 高速公路 (gaosu gonglu) in Chinese, often abbreviated as 高速 (gaosu).

Initially, the Chinese highways were called “Freeways”. This was misleading, however, as “free” was thought to mean toll-free, but “free” refers to the free flow of traffic, as opposed to regular main roads with intersections. Most highways are toll roads. Sometime in the 1990s, the name freeway expired and was replaced by expressway. The word freeway can still be seen on a number of older signs, especially on the older highways around Beijing.

All highways also have a name. The name is often a composite name (portmanteau) of the start and end point. Often the first sound of one name is combined with the first sound of the other name. For example, the Changshen Expressway runs from Changchun to Shenzhen, or the Daguang Expressway from Daqing to Guangzhou. This is done uniformly for most names. There are some deviations, for example, all names of Beijing ‘s radial highways start with “jing”. In addition, some names are based on the region, rather than the city. For example, many highways start with “hu” in the Shanghai region, such as the Hukun Expressway (Shanghai – Kunming) or the Jingzang Expressway (Beijing – Tibet), “rong” around Chengdu and “yu” around Chongqing.

Incidentally, the names of the highways are a combination of three place names, but this seems to be phased out. Also, some highways are known by an old name from the time when there was no national plan for the highways, this is mainly the case around the major cities of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. The names of the highways are sometimes better known than the road numbers.

In 2010, many expressway names were changed at the new start and end points. The old names are still widely used, also many names of shorter segments are still widely used, so that one highway sometimes has several names in popular speech and the media.

Maximum speed

On May 1, 2004, the speed limit on Chinese highways was increased from 110 to 120 km/h. A minimum speed of 70 km/h is maintained, except in congestion. Minimum speeds of 100 or 110 km/h can be maintained in the left lanes. Drivers who drive both too fast and too slow can be fined.

The expressways usually have a design speed of 80, 100 or 120 km/h. This does not correspond to the maximum speed, which is – as usual in the world – higher than the design speed. In the mountainous interior of China, many highways have been built with a design speed of 80 km/h. A higher design speed would entail exorbitant costs, especially since these expressways already require many expensive works of art even with a design speed of 80 km/h.

Expressways were built in the 1990s and early 2000s with outdated design requirements and a slow design speed. From 2010, these started to be gradually modernized, often through costly adjustments with new tunnels and bridges, or sometimes a completely new highway parallel to the old route. This was especially the case in southeastern China, where traffic volumes are relatively high and outdated design requirements are a safety concern. This is especially true in provinces such as Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan and Zhejiang.

Road numbering

In 1992, a plan was rolled out for five east-west and 7 north-south highways in the G-000 to G-099 series. However, due to its rapid growth, this system quickly became obsolete and a new system of 7 radial highways of Beijing, 9 north-south and 18 east-west highways was introduced, with several connecting highways.

All national highways of China have the prefix”G” (Guadao, National). The G1 to G7 are radial roads from Beijing. The G8 and G9 do not exist (yet). The even numbers form east-west routes, ascending to the south. For example, the G10 runs east-west through northern China and the G80 east-west through southern China. The primary numbers end with a 0, so the G50 is more important than the G56. The odd numbers are north-south roads, starting with the G11 in northeast China, going up to G85 in central China. Due to the geography, there are no long north-south routes further west. The numbers ending in a 5 are usually the longest routes, such as the G15, G25, G35, G45, G55, G65, G75 and G85. Most of these double-digit routes are at least 1,000 kilometers long, some over 3,000 kilometers.

The G90 to G98 are regional ring roads, often around several cities or groups of cities. Most of these are at least several hundred kilometers long, but most of these routes do not function in the same way as regular ring roads. In addition, there are ring roads of cities. These always have 4 digits. The first two digits are for the main route, followed by a 0 and then usually a 1. For example, the G15 01 is the ring road of Shanghai, based on the main route G15. Ring road numbers are incidentally more common. There are also national expressways of regional importance, these also have 4 digits, for example the G15 11 or the G55 13, the system here is the same as the ring roads. Most of these routes are at most a kilometer or 500 long, occasionally more. They rarely cross more than two provincial boundaries.

In 2013, expressways running parallel to a major route were numbered with a suffix for wind direction, for example the G4E (East) running parallel to the G4. This numbering with cardinal directions was abolished again during the next reform in 2018, the numbers were then given a four-digit number, while the numbers with cardinal directions were given a number in the GXX 2X series. For example, the G15W3 became the G15 23. Numbers based on one of the 7 radians of Beijing were 1-digit with a suffix, these were given a leading zero. For example, the G1N became the G01 21.

Originally the G99 existed as a hypothetical ring road around Taiwan, it was declassified in 2013 and in 2022 the G99 series was introduced as a metropolitan ring expressway.

Expressways originally never had a three-digit number because this number series is reserved for the China National Highways, however, a number of three-digit number expressways have been introduced after 2013, especially in western China. Also, the numbers 4 and 14 are often skipped because this is an unlucky number.

Type number interpretation
G1-G7 National expressway (radial)
G10-G99 National expressway
G01 0 1 – G01 0 9, G10 0 1 – G10 0 9, G99 0 1 – G99 0 9 Ring expressway
G01 1 1 – G01 1 9, G10 1 1 – G10 1 9, G98 1 1 – G98 1 9 spur expressway
G01 2 1 – G01 2 9, G10 2 1 – G10 2 9, G98 2 1 – G98 2 9 Parallel expressway
G99 0 1 – G99 1 2 Metropolitan ring expressway

Toll

Almost all expressways are toll roads. The toll is approximately 0.5 yuan per kilometer (€ 0.05). The toll can vary, the level of the toll says nothing about the quality of the road or the risk of congestion. Most highways are not managed by private toll companies. This is because the Chinese provinces, which are responsible for the construction of the highways, have little opportunity to raise or introduce taxes.

The construction of highways has also been one of the rare occasions when China’s communist party has not had all the power, for example, a proposal to increase fuel taxes was rejected by the national people’s congress.

Most toll roads have a closed ticket toll system. Shorter highways around cities also have an open toll system. The staff at the toll gates speak virtually no English. It is required by law that signs indicate how much a toll road costs. These are usually only in Chinese and not for the passing motorist to read in such a short time. After 2010, electronic toll collection (ETC) was on the rise.

China Road Network