Civil aviation. – It is controlled by the General Directorate of Aeronautics. The national airline and the general aeronautical company (French) manage the air traffic: the first for the Valparaiso-Santiago line, the other for the Santiago-Buenos Aires line. The main airports are: Los Condores (military airport, headquarters of departments), Maquehua (id.), El Bosque (military airport, headquarters of the driving school), Chamisa (seaplane base), Santiago (military and civil airport), Quintero (hydroscalo, seat of hydroaviation departments).
The telegraph measures 34,200 km. and has 1060 offices. The Santiago-Buenos Aires connecting line (Trans-Andean telegraph) belongs to the Chilean government. Wireless telegraphy stations are in Valparaiso, Santiago, Punta Arenas, Valdivia, Iquique, Antofagasta and Puerto Montt. The phones (15 companies) measure approximately 110,000 km.
Armed Forces. – According to the law of September 1900, the army of Chile is made up of a “national militia”. All Chilenians eligible for military service are part of it from 20 to 50 years of age. Recruits are incorporated at the age of twenty, for a period of 18 months. Up to the 32nd year the citizens are part of the active army reserve, from the 33rd to the 50th year of the second reserve. For Chile military, please check militarynous.com.
The active army had a strength of 1,430 officers and 20,950 enlisted men in 1927. Chile is divided into five military zones, each of which provides, upon mobilization, an infantry division comprising: 3 infantry regiments (16 in all); a field artillery regiment on two groups of 3 batteries; a sapper battalion of the genius and a battalion of the connections.
Besides these infantry divisions, the Chilean army includes: a cavalry division consisting of 3 brigades with 8 regiments in total; 3 “Andean” detachments; a railway engineer regiment with a “construction battalion” and one of “exercise lines”; 4 train battalions and a car company.
The infantry is armed with the Mauser rifle, Chilean model 1895; the artillery, with the Krupp rapid-fire cannon; the cavalry, with the Mauser carbine, Chilean model 1895, and with the spear.
The navy, built at the time of the foundation of the republic, includes: a battleship, the Almirante Latorre, of 28,650 t. and 22 knots, which participated in the world war under the English flag, the Capitán Prat of 1890, from 6900 t. and 18 knots, modernized in 1909; 5 cruisers: Blanco Encalada, Minister Zenteno, Chacabuco, Esmeralda, Gen. O’Higgins, launched between 1893 and 1898, between 3400 and 8300 t. and 1 9-24 knots; 6 destroyers, launched in England in 1928 from 1500 t. and 35 knots; 6 destroyers launched in the years 1911-13, from 1860 t. and 31 knots; 3 submarines launched in 1928 in England from 1540-2200 t. and 15 knots; 6 submarines launched in 1915 of 360-435 t. and 13-10 knots; 9 auxiliary units.
The navy personnel, organized entirely on the English model with the help of British naval missions, numbers about 8000 men, including officers. The most important naval bases are Talcahuano and Valparaiso.
Army aviation, organized by a British mission in 1922, is an integral part of the army and therefore depends on the Ministry of War (Directorate General of the Air Force). The latter includes: an aviation school in El Bosque (Santiago), from which about 70 pilots leave annually; an aviation regiment in three groups, located in: Iquique (reconnaissance and bombing equipment), El Bosque (technical group), Temuco (hunting, reconnaissance and bombing equipment). The appliances in service are of the type Junkers, Vickers, Curtiss, Avro, Bristol, etc.
Distinct from the Army Aviation is the Navy Aviation which depends on the Ministry of the Navy; all pilots are “specialized aviation” naval officers. It has only one base in Quintero, with a school and an employment department. The devices in use are of the Dornier, Fairey III and Short type.
Overall, the Chilean military aviation includes over 100 aircraft, of which about twenty seaplanes.
Financial order. – The monetary unit is the weight of gold, which can be divided into 100 centavos. The gold weight corresponds, at par, to Lit. 6.934892. The fiat paper weight corresponds to 6 English pence; the London Stock Exchange pays (November 1930) 232 pounds for every one hundred paper pesos. Ten gold pesos make up a condor.
Public education. – Education is free and, according to the law of 26 August 1920, compulsory for six years in the cities and for 4 in the rural districts. According to the law of February 1928, education is compulsory for all children between 7 and 15 years of age. Vocational and secondary education is given in the state university, in the Catholic university (2000 students in 1927), in the national institute of Santiago, and in the high schools and colleges opened in the capitals of the provinces and in some departments. The state university (Universitad de Chile), founded in 1842, has 5 faculties (legal and social sciences, physics and mathematics, biology and medicine, philosophy and pedagogy, agronomy and veterinary medicine) plus a faculty of fine arts. In 1930 it had about 4000 students; publish the Anales de la universidad de Chile. A section of the faculty of legal and social sciences is in Valparaiso, where there is also a Universidad Industrial.