Chile History 1948

By | December 1, 2021

The elections of March 1937 had also sent 7 Communists and 3 National Socialists to parliament: the latter, under the leadership of J. González von Maree, intensified their action, which culminated in the attempted coup of 5 September 1938. Both parties joined to the Frente popular whose candidate, Fr Aguirre Cerda, elected president on October 23, hastened to anmistiare González.

However, the great public works plan of the Frente popular could not be put into effect, until later and to a limited extent, due to the terrifying earthquake that on 24-25 January 1939 completely destroyed Chillán, and devastated other cities, including Concepción., Linares, Talcahuano and Cauquenes, causing about 40,000 victims. The political tension continued, among other things, for the revolutionary attempt (August) of the gen. Herrera, supported by Ibáñez. Meanwhile, small groups of European immigrants were admitted: the granting of irregular passports and visas caused a scandal in February 1940. For Chile history, please check historyaah.com.

At the outbreak of the war in Europe, Chile declared itself neutral and this attitude maintained, not associating itself with the protest of the American states against the USSR attack on Finland, and in the conferences of Panama and Havana.

But, if it yielded to various German impositions, Chile continued to recognize the diplomatic representations of Poland, Denmark and Norway and closed the German consulate in Valparaíso. He resisted the Spanish government’s claim that some republicans who had taken refuge in the Chilean embassy in Madrid were handed over (asylum also enjoyed by the partisans of Gen. Franco and recognized by inter-American international law), so that the Spanish government, in July, broke off relations diplomats, whose resumption he announced on 12 October, día de la raza (or “of Columbus”). Meanwhile, in May 1940, it was decided to submit the dispute with Argentina relating to the islands of the Beagle Channel, Picton, Nueva and Lennox, to United States arbitration, and Chilean rights over Antarctica were reaffirmed (see below). A loan from the Export-Import Bank of the United States made up for the shortage of foreign exchange; but the service of foreign loans had to be suspended (December), due to the conditions of the budget, aggravated by strikes and workers unrest, provoked by the communists – in open disagreement with the socialists headed by M. Grove and O. Schnake – and by the activities National Socialists.

The supplementary elections of November 18, 1940 marked a victory for the Frente popular which brought another – but not such as to give it an absolute majority – in those of March 2, 1941, which sent to the Chamber and the Senate, respectively, also 17 and 4 communists. Against these, a law was approved in 1940, but Agirre vetoed it. With the attack by Germany on the USSR, however, the agreement between the Communists and the Socialists, in favor of the Allies, was re-established, while the National Socialists resorted to violence, killing a deputy (May 1941): but the government did not succeed in having the González in an asylum; weapons depots and a vast military-type organization were discovered. Therefore, the continuing dissensions in the government coalition, which provoked repeated ministerial crises, and the repercussions of the war on domestic politics led the government to prohibit any demonstration in favor of one or another group of belligerents. However, as early as February, Chile seized 3 Danish ships, then another 2; 5 German steamers managed to escape. And trade agreements were made with Mexico.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Chile proposed the convening of a conference and Rio de Janeiro became associated with Argentina, ensuring that each state was left free to decide when to break off relations with the Axis. The new president, JA Rios, elected on 1 February 1942 (Agirre having died on 25 November 1941) at first came even closer to Argentina. The divided public opinion was shaken by the speech of S. Welles (October 8) in which the United States government revealed the existence of a vast espionage network. The resentment of Chile manifested itself with the suspension of the planned visit of the Rios to Washington; but shortly thereafter, the Committee for the Political Defense of the Continent, in Montevideo, made public the information, in its possession since June. Hence the resignation of the cabinet and, having replaced the Foreign Minister E. Barros Jarpa with J. Fernández, the mission to Washington of the Interior Minister R. Morales Beltrami and the breakdown of diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy and Japan (January 20, 1943). In March, the “lease and loan” agreement with the United States was concluded and, in June, the contract for the sale of copper to the US Metal Reserve Corporation. And a new group of Germanic spies was arrested. But the internal situation was difficult: industries and transport suffered from the lack of coal; life became more expensive, the workers were agitated. Above all, the coalition of parties did not remain united: the radicals wanted a ministry entirely of left-wing parties, to which the administrative elections gave the prevalence, but the Rios did not want to submit to the impositions of the radicals and in 1944 it clashed with his party. In December it was decided to establish diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. However, the right-wing parties were strengthening: in August A. Alessandri was elected senator and, after the elections of March 1945, the Rios tried to form a “center” cabinet; failing, he resorted to the left, but excluded the communists, while Alessandria was elected president of the senate. Alessandri was elected senator and, after the elections of March 1945, the Rios tried to form a “center” cabinet; failing, he resorted to the left, but excluded the communists, while Alessandria was elected president of the senate. Alessandri was elected senator and, after the elections of March 1945, the Rios tried to form a “center” cabinet; failing, he resorted to the left, but excluded the communists, while Alessandria was elected president of the senate.

Chile had maintained good relations with Argentina and immediately recognized the government of E. Farrell; however, it continued the policy of “continental solidarity” and, after adhering to the United Nations Declaration, formally declared war on Japan. There was a certain reaction, with serious acts of sabotage, especially against the steamers; a mass in suffrage for B. Mussolini caused serious disturbances in Santiago on 12 May. In October, President Rios traveled to Washington. On January 17, 1946, for health reasons, he left the presidency to A. Duhalde.

Worker discontent was growing; after a serious conflict in Santiago (11 deaths) and the consequent general strike (28-30 January), the communists won in the union elections and, in response to requests from the US to increase the production of nitrates, threatened to prevent exports in case of dissent between the US and the URRS. Meanwhile, Rios died on June 27, the rights were divided between the liberal F. Alessandri Rodríguez (son of Arturo) and the conservative E. Cruz Coke; and the left between A. Duhalde, expelled from the radical party and supported by the socialists, and the radical G. González Videla, for whom the communists voted. He got more votes than Cruz, but not an absolute majority; however, he was elected by the senate. And he formed a first ministry with radicals, liberals and communists. He concluded a trade agreement with Argentina and claimed the rights of Chile (as the successor of the Spanish crown which since 1555 affirmed its sovereignty in the lands south of the Strait of Magellan) over Antarctica between the 53rd and 90th W, with the declaration of December 14, 1946. It followed the expedition that in 1947 established a base (calling it Puerto Soberanía) on Greenwich Island, which the González visited in February 1948, also renaming the Land of Graham as “Land of O ‘Higgins” resisting the British protests of December 1947 and February 1948; and preparing to present the dispatch of the English cruiser at the Inter-American conferences Strait of Magellan) over Antarctica between 53 ° and 90 ° W, with the declaration of 14 December 1946. The expedition followed in 1947 which established a base (calling it Puerto Soberanía) on Greenwich Island, which the González visited in February 1948, also renaming the Land of Graham as “Land of O ‘Higgins” resisting the British protests of December 1947 and February 1948; and preparing to present the dispatch of the English cruiser at the Inter-American conferences Strait of Magellan) over Antarctica between 53 ° and 90 ° W, with the declaration of 14 December 1946. The expedition followed in 1947 which established a base (calling it Puerto Soberanía) on Greenwich Island, which the González visited in February 1948, also renaming the Land of Graham as “Land of O ‘Higgins” resisting the British protests of December 1947 and February 1948; and preparing to present the dispatch of the English cruiser at the Inter-American conferences Nigeria as an aggression, or at least a threat. In July and August González visited Brazil and Argentina, concluding or perfecting agreements. But the internal situation remained difficult, causing ministerial crises, due to the economic conditions and the attitude of the parties. The strike in the coal mines of Lota and Coronel, in the South, and of the railways, forced to take severe measures already in August, then to introduce a rationing, until the government, obtained extraordinary powers for 6 months, had the mines occupied militarily, on October 8th. At the same time, he announced the discovery of a vast “plan” of communist espionage and sabotage, with connections in Argentina and headed, in Chile, by the legation of Yugoslavia: hence the expulsion of two employees, D. Jakasa and A. Cunja. The Belgrade government replied and in protest broke off diplomatic relations: Chile responded on 11 October by publishing documents found in the Jakasa’s home. Relations with Czechoslovakia and the USSR followed on the 21st, to which they replied in a press release from the agency Tass, accusations of “fascism”. Meanwhile, on the 20th, the miners resumed work and on the 22nd about 200 communists were arrested. Other measures were taken after the government extended the extraordinary powers in January 1948. But when the communist P. Neruda was prevented from speaking on the suspension of his parliamentary immunity in the senate, President Alessandri resigned. In March, the Communists were excluded from state and parastatal employment.

Chile History 1948