The political and economic center is the capital Bangui (approx. 750,000 inhabitants). Other larger cities: Bimbo 250,000 inhabitants, Berbérati 105,000 inhabitants.
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country without direct access to the sea. Area: 622,984 km?. It borders Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1197 km, DRC 1577 km, KR 467 km and Sudan 175 km and South Sudan 990 km. The climate is tropical. Hot dry seasons, humid warm rainy seasons. Administratively, SAR is divided into 14 prefectures, 2 economic prefectures and one area (commune):
Bamingui-Bangoran, Bantuj (capital), Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo, Lobaye, Mambere-Kadei, Mbomou, Nana-Grebizi, Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha-Mbaere and Vakaga.
The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the Central African Republic after gaining independence in 1960. Since that year, the country has gone through many military coups and a period of empire. Currently, the SAR is a unitary republic practicing a presidential system of power with the existence of multiple political parties. According to the constitution, the president is elected in direct elections for five years.
Legislative power is entrusted by the constitution to the unicameral National Assembly, where 105 deputies sit, its members are elected by a two-round popular vote for a five-year term (for election in the first round, more than 50% of the votes are needed, in the second the decision is made by a simple majority between the two strongest candidates).
The constitution was approved by referendum on 5 December 2004, amended in 2010. However, the 2012-2015 crisis interrupted constitutional development (the validity of the constitution was suspended) and the text of the new constitution is currently being prepared. Main political parties: National Convergence (KNK), Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC), Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Central African Democratic Assembly (RDC), Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP).
The former French colony went through a period of military rule, the empire of Jean-Bédel Bokassa and a decade of formally democratic rule by Ange-Félix Patassé. He was overthrown by President François Bozize in 2003 with the participation of France and Chad. Civilian rule was restored in 2005, but the period of instability continued. A military coup ended several months of tension in the Central African Republic (CAR). On Sunday, March 24, 2013, rebels led by Michel Djotodia occupied the capital, Bangui. President François Bozizé fled to Cameroon and Djotodia appointed himself in his place. This is how he took power with the support of a coalition formed by representatives of the opposition, rebels and supporters of the former president.
On 10 January 2014, Michel Djotodia was forced to resign from his post due to his utter inability to manage the country, which had descended into civil war within a year. Séléka units became independent and began to terrorize the predominantly Christian part of the population. As a reaction, anti-balaka militias were formed, which were originally intended to protect the attacked population, but eventually caused the exodus of a large part of the country’s Muslim population, and in methods and terror did not differ from the Séléka.
Interim President Catherine Samba-Panza took office on 21 January 2014 and remained in office until President Faustin Archange Touadéra, who was elected in free elections in the spring of 2016, took power on 31 March 2016. This symbolically closed an ugly chapter of Central African history. However, it has not been won yet. A UN peacekeeping mission operates in the country, and only now are the French troops of Operation Sangaris withdrawing. In many places, ex-Séléka and ex-anti-balaka members still clash with them. Even in the capital, religiously motivated violence still occurs. The country was helped by the visit of Pope Francis I and the subsequent appointment of the first Central African cardinal, Dieudonné Nzapalainga.
The stability of the Central African Republic (CAR) has been fragile throughout 2018 and, unfortunately, it does not seem that the development should go in a better direction in the coming period. If there is no coup or a new escalation of violence, it can be assumed that President Faustin-Archange Touadéra, who was elected as head of state in 2016, will remain in power. It is supported by the relative majority of the political establishment as well as the international community, with which it cooperates very favorably and which provides the country with extensive financial support.
The security situation worsened significantly in late 2016. The crisis hit the country two years after the end of the 2013-14 civil war between Christian Anti-balaka militias and Muslim Séléka militants. The ethnically and religiously colored violence that overthrew President François Boziz in 2013 was fueled by power interests from Chad and Sudan, among others. With the military coup in SAR in March 2013, Michel Djotodia seized power with the support of a coalition formed by representatives of the opposition, rebels and supporters of the former president. Soon, however, a crisis erupted in the country, engulfing his regime as well. Free elections were held in February 2016, in which incumbent President Touadéra won and took over power from the interim government of President Catherine Samba-Panza, who had ruled the country since January 2014. Check prozipcodes for Central African Republic defense and foreign policy.
The country began to recover from the ongoing conflict, however, as early as October 2016, new clashes broke out between members of rebel groups. It was a struggle for power and control over the country’s mineral wealth (mainly gold and diamonds) between armed groups, including two factions of the former Séléka – the Popular Front for the Renewal of the Central African Republic (Front populaire pour la renaissance de la Centrafrique – FPRC) and the Peace Union for the Central African Republic (Unie pour la paix en Centrafrique – UPC). A year later, in October 2017, the FPRC and UPC factions coordinated again, streamlining diversionary actions and uniting in weapons smuggling. The conflict once again turned into a fight between Muslims and Christians.
Official name of the state, composition of the government
- Central African Republic
- French: République Centrafricaine (RCA)
- English: Central African Republic (CAR)
The SAR is a unitary republic practicing a presidential system of power with the existence of multiple political parties. According to the constitution, the president is elected in direct elections for five years. On January 20, 2014, the National Transitional Council elected interim president Catherine Samba-Panza as head of state until the 2015 elections. She remained in office until President Faustin Archange Touadéra, who was elected in free elections in the spring of 2016, took power on March 31, 2016. Check cancermatters to learn more about Central African Republic political system.
The president heads the government, appoints the prime minister, with whom he shares some executive powers. The government is also appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister.
Composition of the government:
- Prime Minister: Simplice Sarandji
- Felix Moloua – economics, planning and cooperation
- Joseph Yakete – Defense
- Henri Marie Dondra – finance and budget
- Jean Serge Bokassa – Interior, Public Security and Territorial Administration
- Charles Armel Doubane – Foreign Affairs, African Integration and Central Africans Abroad Flavien Mbata – Justice and Human Rights
- Leopold Mboli-Fatrane – mines, energy and water supply
- Arlette Sombo-Dibele – environment, sustainable development, water, forests, hunting and fishing Moukadas Noure – education, higher education and research
- Fernande Ndjengbot – Healthcare
- Honore Feizour – Agriculture
- Yerima Youssoufa Mandjo – animal husbandry and health
- Abdoulaye Moussa – Labor and Social Affairs
- Theodore Jousso – transport
- Silvère Ngarso – youth and physical education
- Justin Gourna-Zacko – post and telecommunications
- Virginia Baikoua – Social Affairs and National Reconciliation
- Gisele Pana – art, tourism, culture and Francophonie
- Come Hassane – trade and industry
- Charles Paul Lemasset Mandya – Communication and Information
- Bertrand Touaboy – National Enterprises, Crafts and SMEs
- Jean-Christophe Nguinza – Secretary General of the Government for Relations with State Authorities
and Evaluation of Public Policies
Demographic trends: Population, average annual increase, demographic composition (including nationalities, religious groups)
- Population: – million (2016 estimate).
- Share of the economically active population: approx. 2 million
- Average annual increase in the population and its demographic composition
- Annual population increase: 2.11% (data from 2015).
- 0-14 years: 40.6%
- 15-64: 55.8%
- 65 and over: 3.6%
National composition : The most strongly represented ethnic groups are Baya (33%), Banda (27%), Mandija (13%), Sara (10%), Mboum (7%), M’Baka (4%), Yakoma (4 %) and more.
Religion : local natural religion prevails (35%), 25% of the population is Protestant, 25% is Roman Catholic and 15% is Islam.
The official language is French, the common language is Sangho. Other indigenous languages are used locally.