Category Archives: South America

Latin America is the most urbanized continent in the world with almost 80% of its citizens living in cities. Mambo, salsa, cha-cha-cha, rumba and tango dances all come from Latin America. Latin America has never mattered more for the United States. The region is the largest foreign supplier of oil to the United States and a strong partner in the development of alternative fuels. Latin America and the Caribbean is still home to nine out of the 14 countries in the world that recognize Taiwan – including Nicaragua, a member of the troika. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 30 countries in Latin America.
Central and South America population
The proportion of the population of Latin America in the world population has grown rapidly over the past decades. It increased from 3.8 percent in 1900 to 8.5 percent in 2014; it will probably be around 7.9 percent in 2050. Latin America’s population is expected to increase by 155 million between 2014 and 2050. The annual growth rate averaged 1.2 percent in 2014, which corresponds to the world average and is significantly less than the growth rate of Africa (2.5 percent), but slightly more than that of Asia (1.1 percent). Around a third of the population of Latin America lives in Brazil, the fifth largest country in the world in terms of population.

The demographic development depends on the birth and death rates, child mortality and average life expectancy. In many parts of Latin America, population development follows the demographic transition model. Life expectancy is higher than in large parts of Africa and South Asia; today it corresponds to that in the Eastern European EU member states. The birth rates have decreased in the last few decades, as has the natural population growth. Within Latin America, however, it becomes apparent that the development of the countries has progressed to different degrees. While Argentina, Uruguay and Cuba, for example, show low growth rates that are below average in a continental comparison, the population in countries such as Guatemala (+2.6% / year) is still growing relatively strongly.

The proportion of the urban population is growing faster than the population as a whole; in 2014 it was 78 percent. In numerous Latin American states, a large part of the population lives in so-called primate cities. Examples are Lima (Peru), Buenos Aires (Argentina) or Montevideo (Uruguay). Primary cities are large cities, usually also capitals of their country, which have an above-average population. For the complete list of nations in South America, please visit

Peru Arts and Music

ART AND ARCHITECTURE In the colonial period, the Peru reflects the path of Spanish art and architecture, albeit conditioned by the climate, geology and also by indigenous cultural heritage. In the coastal region, adobe and brick constructions prevailed, in the Andean area those in stone. Frequent earthquakes destroyed most of the buildings but there are… Read More »

Peru Relief Part II

The outer ridge line in the southernmost part is separated from the inner one by the deep, populous valley of the Río Santa, called Callejón de Huaylas ; it does not exceed 5000 m. high and is called Cordillera Negra (because it has no permanent snow). The Santa in its rapid descent (2000 m. In… Read More »

Peru Relief Part I

Three great regions are distinguished in Peru, which differ greatly from one another in terms of relief, morphology, climate and vegetation, in short for their physical characteristics, as well as for anthropogenic and economic conditions. They are: 1. the coastal region; 2. the Sierra, that is the mountainous region that is part of the Andean… Read More »

Peru Recent History Part II

The general elections of April 8, 1990 confirmed the decline of the left. In the consultations for the Congress, no party obtained a majority: FREDEMO won 63 seats in the Chamber and 20 in the Senate, while APRA dropped to 49 and 16 seats respectively; Cambio 90, a new independent team, obtained 34 deputies and… Read More »

Peru Recent History Part I

The elections for the Constituent Assembly in June 1978 represented the first step towards the return to power of civilians; the lack of participation, in controversy with the military government, of the center-right formation Acción Popular (AP) favored the victory of the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA, with 35% of the votes and 37 seats… Read More »

Peru Music

Peruvian music of the first quarter of the 20th century is characterized by the nationalistic current, which, born in the last part of the 19th century, was inspired by the musical forms of folklore or drew from it the subjects for the works. The music Quechua and the mestiza they manifest themselves to varying degrees… Read More »

Peru Material Culture

The news on the civilization of the Inca period necessarily refers to the last stage, that is, when they could be collected in the written narration of the chroniclers, both on the basis of direct observation of these, and on the basis of information obtained on the place from different sources. In general, the judgment… Read More »

Peru Literature in the 1960’s

The Sixties mark in the narrative of Peru, next to the explosion of the work of M. Vargas Llosa (see App. IV, iii, p. 792 and in this Appendix), the conclusion of the parable of JM Arguedas (m suicide in 1969), which began in the 1930s with the first stories. After Todas las sangres (1964;… Read More »

Peru Literature

From the 16th to the 19th century Together with Mexico, Fr kept alive and continuous contacts with the motherland, also through the direct intervention of the Castilian writers. In the second half of the 16th century. the university flourished in Lima, and the art of printing was very active. G. de la Vega el Inca… Read More »

Peru in the 1990’s

With the Constitution of 1979 the Peru, after years marked by a succession of coups d’état and governments subject to the protection of the military, initiated a complex process of democratization, made difficult by the persistence of contradictions and unsolved problems. Poverty and strong social inequalities, a huge foreign debt, the looming presence of the… Read More »

Peru in the 1950’s

Population. – The population of Peru, according to an evaluation of 1959, is 10,524,000 residents (9 per km 2). Since the last official census of the population, which dates back to 1940, there has therefore been an increase of almost 3.5 million residents, with an increase of 48%. From an administrative point of view, since… Read More »

Peru in the 1930’s and 1940’s

The gen. Oscar R. Benavides ruled with energy not devoid of wisdom. The elections of 1936 were apparently about to give victory to LA Eguigúren, supported by “Apra” (see, in this second App., I, p. 223), when the Benavides canceled them and had their mandate extended for three years. In the international field, relations with… Read More »

Peru in the 1930’s

After the border issues with Colombia were resolved through the agreement of May 1934 (Buenos Aires protocol), which recognized Colombia as the city of Leticia, there were still disputes with Ecuador, again for border issues: however, on 12 March 1936 an agreement was signed between the two governments, for the appointment of a joint commission… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part V

A comforting fact, however, in the midst of the turbulent history of political factions, is the constant economic-demographic progress within Peru, which is completed with the adjustment of the borders in relations with foreign countries. As at the time of the conquest, the Indian mass still remained at the basis of Peruvian life; and of… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part IV

Therefore, when Peru, having imposed an exit duty on saltpetre with the result of seeing the Bolivian export desert its ports in favor of the Chilean ones, asked Bolivia to also impose exit duties on the Atacama saltpeters, the Bolivia accepted the Peruvian proposal, despite the contrary provisions of an agreement made by it in… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part III

Spain then sent in 1862 a small squad under Admiral Pinzón to occupy the Chincha Islands; an occupation which, being recklessly presented under the aspect of claiming Spanish rights not extinguished, raised a crawl space in all the Spanish-American nations, and pushed the Spanish government to replace the Pinzón with Admiral Pareja. An agreement entered… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part II

La Mar then moved against Colombia itself for the possession of the provinces of Jaén and los Maynas, which he – a native of Guayaquil – needed to be entitled to the presidency of Peru, according to the new constitution of 1828; but he was defeated in Portete de Tarqui, in the province of Quito,… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part I

Despite the decline and neglect of the motherland, Peru still constituted, at the beginning of the century. XIX, the political, moral and military center of Spain on the South American continent; and this – together with the greater geographical, political and economic isolation – explains how the independence movement in Peru took place later than… Read More »

Peru History Since 2006

The second government of Alan García, which began on July 28, 2006, ushered in a five-year period of sustained economic growth, fueled by the boom in the prices of exported mineral resources (especially copper and silver) and the influx of private foreign investments in strategic sectors mining and oil. However, the five years of García’s… Read More »

Peru History Before Independence

Pre-Columbian era The territory of Peru odierno includes the largest part of the cultural area in which, in the course of almost three millennia, the major civilizations of South America developed, the last of which was the vast Inca Empire faced and defeated by the Spanish conquerors in the 1532-36. Among the most characteristic aspects… Read More »

Peru History – The Spanish Conquest Part II

A no less inequitable than laughable trial was set up against Atahualpa, accused of fomenting anti-Spanish movements, and condemned to death, leaving him the choice between conversion and the halter or between ancestral paganism and the stake: he naturally opted for death less cruel and, having received baptism, was strangled and buried with the greatest… Read More »

Peru History – The Spanish Conquest Part I

The country that the Spaniards called Peru was the heart of the Inca empire at the time of the discovery. Relatively recent political creation, which had paved the way a few centuries before the domination of the Pirhuas, organizers of the last pre-Inca empire, the Tahuantinsuyu (ie “The four cantons”) or Incap Runam (“Vassals of… Read More »

Peru Geopolitics

Seat of the most famous Andean civilizations (first of all the Inca one), modern Peru seeks to regain a prominent place in the region and part of that international prestige it had in past centuries. Blocked for decades by chronic political instability, economic underdevelopment, deep inequalities and weak state institutions, Peru has been an example… Read More »

Peru Geography, Population and Economy

Peru is a State of South America, bordered to the North with Ecuador and Colombia, to the East with Brazil and Bolivia, to the South with Chile ; to the West it is bathed by the Pacific for 2270 km. Physical characteristics The territory of Peru is stretched in a NW-SE direction, between the Pacific… Read More »

Peru Flora and Fauna

Flora and vegetation. – The coastal area is extraordinarily arid and appears as an immense beach, crossed by some cultivated valleys; only here and there on the shores of the sea do Salicornia peruviana, some Salsola and Sesuvium grow and in the interior of the coast some Tillandsia, Cactaceae and Argemone mexicana. Only at the… Read More »

Peru Figurative Arts Part II

Nuñez Ureta (b. 1914) began as a watercolorist, later dedicating himself to painting, especially murals, in which he enjoyed success: his works are found in the Ministry of Economy, in that of Education and in other public buildings. In the field of sculpture it will be right to mention among the artists who flourished in… Read More »

Peru Figurative Arts Part I

A fundamental contribution to the development of 20th century Peruvian painting came from the National School of Fine Arts, founded in 1918, and from three eminent artists who taught there: the painters D. Hernández and J. Sabogal and the Spanish sculptor M. Piqueras Cotolí. D. Hernández (1856-1932), who spent almost all his life between Paris… Read More »

Peru Economic Sectors

Livestock breeding. Fishing. – The livestock patrimony of Peru is made up as follows: cattle, 1.8 million; sheep, 11.2 million; goats, 638,000; horses, 432,000; donkeys, 265,000; mules, 130,000; pigs, 668,000; blade, 599,000; alpaca, 608,000. Cattle, mostly raised in the wild, are numerous in the Sierra (the department of Puno is in first place, which owns… Read More »

Peru Economic Conditions

The area used, from the agricultural point of view, of the whole Peruvian territory is 15 million ha, of which 13 million are natural pasture; the remainder is cultivated land, of which 500,000 ha are set aside annually. Of the entire cultivated area, 43.9% is for cereals, 14.6% for tuber plants, 15.5% for industrial crops,… Read More »

Peru Demographics 2014

Demography and economic geography. – State of South America. The high ethnic fragmentation that distinguishes Peru (30,769,077 residents, According to an estimate by UNDESA, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, of 2014) still represents an obstacle to the consolidation of the state and that of integration remains a complex problem, made more marked… Read More »