Category Archives: South America

Latin America is the most urbanized continent in the world with almost 80% of its citizens living in cities. Mambo, salsa, cha-cha-cha, rumba and tango dances all come from Latin America. Latin America has never mattered more for the United States. The region is the largest foreign supplier of oil to the United States and a strong partner in the development of alternative fuels. Latin America and the Caribbean is still home to nine out of the 14 countries in the world that recognize Taiwan – including Nicaragua, a member of the troika. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 30 countries in Latin America.
Central and South America population
The proportion of the population of Latin America in the world population has grown rapidly over the past decades. It increased from 3.8 percent in 1900 to 8.5 percent in 2014; it will probably be around 7.9 percent in 2050. Latin America’s population is expected to increase by 155 million between 2014 and 2050. The annual growth rate averaged 1.2 percent in 2014, which corresponds to the world average and is significantly less than the growth rate of Africa (2.5 percent), but slightly more than that of Asia (1.1 percent). Around a third of the population of Latin America lives in Brazil, the fifth largest country in the world in terms of population.

The demographic development depends on the birth and death rates, child mortality and average life expectancy. In many parts of Latin America, population development follows the demographic transition model. Life expectancy is higher than in large parts of Africa and South Asia; today it corresponds to that in the Eastern European EU member states. The birth rates have decreased in the last few decades, as has the natural population growth. Within Latin America, however, it becomes apparent that the development of the countries has progressed to different degrees. While Argentina, Uruguay and Cuba, for example, show low growth rates that are below average in a continental comparison, the population in countries such as Guatemala (+2.6% / year) is still growing relatively strongly.

The proportion of the urban population is growing faster than the population as a whole; in 2014 it was 78 percent. In numerous Latin American states, a large part of the population lives in so-called primate cities. Examples are Lima (Peru), Buenos Aires (Argentina) or Montevideo (Uruguay). Primary cities are large cities, usually also capitals of their country, which have an above-average population.

Peru Overview

Country overview & natural area From a scenic, cultural, ethnic and climatic point of view, Peru is a fascinating country. 84 of the 117 recognized life zones in the world can be found between the Pacific coast, Andean highlands and the Amazon region. Peru is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity in… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part I

President Vizcarra and Congress President Manuel Merino On Sunday November 16, Congress managed to set up a multi-party leadership committee. The plenary session of the Congress voted on this. Of the 123 parliamentarians present, 97 voted for and 26 against the composition. A President and three Vice-Presidents of the Congress were thus determined. At the… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part II

The first case of the corona virus was confirmed in Peru on March 6, 2020. On March 15, President Vizcarra ordered compulsory quarantine and shortly thereafter a night curfew from 8:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. This was initially valid throughout the country for 15 days. With this measure, Vizcarra took the political initiative again and… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part III

At the beginning of July 2019, the Vizcarra government approved the start of the Tía María copper project by the Mexican company Southern Peru in the Tambo Valley. The population of Islay Province rioted on July 15 over fears for agriculture and water. The government is facing a difficult problem shortly before the national holiday… Read More »

Peru Geography

Peru Overview Peru is the largest Andean country, was the cradle of the most developed indigenous civilizations and the seat of the strongest empire in pre-Hispanic South America, the Inca Empire. Peru was the center of Spanish colonial rule for three centuries. For these reasons the country has a diverse heritage in terms of people… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part IV

After tough negotiations, the executive succeeded in convincing the members of the communities in the area of the Las Bambas mining project to lift the road blockade. At the moment, the demands of the communities are being negotiated in nine working groups made up of the executive and community members. While some working groups are… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part V

After releasing audio recordings of corrupt judges and prosecutors, President Vizcarra took an active role in the fight against corruption in the judicial system. He quickly nominated a judicial commission to propose reforming the sector by July 25th. In his government speech on July 28, 2018, he presented the first results of this commission and… Read More »

Peru Presidential and Congressional Elections

Congress elections on January 26, 2020 The congressional elections scheduled for the end of September 2019 due to the dissolution of the congress have resulted in a fractional congress. Of the 21 parties that ran for elections, only nine managed to pass the 5% hurdle. The party Volksaktion AP received 10.5% of the votes in… Read More »

Peru Presidential and Congressional Elections 2

In parliament, Keiko Fujimori’s People’s Strength party had 72 (one member of parliament left the parliamentary group) of the 130 congress seats, giving it a clear majority. Surprisingly, the “Broad Front” has established itself as the second political force in Congress with 20 seats (one member of parliament left the parliamentary group, the “Broad Front”… Read More »

Peru Domestic Politics 2

The corruption scandal so far has affected Chief Justice César Hinostroza, the President of the Callao Higher Court, Walter Ríos and three members of the National Council of Justice (CNM), which is responsible for appointing judges and removing them from office. The President of the Callao High Court, Walter Ríos, was taken into custody by… Read More »

Peru Domestic Politics

Peru History & State Independence Day: July 28, 1821 Head of state: Francisco Sagasti Hochhausler (from November 17, 2020) Head of government: Violeta Bermúdez Valdivia (since November 18, 2020) Political system: Multi-party system Democracy Status Index (BTI): Rank 29 (out of 129) 2018 Corruption Index (CPI): Rank 105 (of 180) (2018) Power groups The Peruvian… Read More »

Peru History

The pre-Hispanic cultures Clay city by Chan Chan Head of a deity anchored in the wall Paracas ceramics Textiles Mochica ceramics According to dentistrymyth, Peru and Bolivia are considered the cradle of the pre-Columbian civilizations in South America. Long before the Inca, the first high cultures developed here. The Holy City of Caral, which was… Read More »

Peru Government Form

The state of Peru is a democratic, social, independent and sovereign republic. It represents a unit and is indivisible. The state is representative, decentralized and organized according to the principle of the separation of powers. The position of the president within the executive power has been given far-reaching powers since the constitutional amendment of 1993.… Read More »

Peru Local and Regional Elections

Elected governor Aymara leader Walter Aduviri Regional and local elections on October 7th / December 9th, 2018 In the elections for the mayor of Lima, the representative of the popular action Jorge Muñoz won with 36.2% of the vote. Three weeks earlier it was 4% in the polls. The big winners of the local elections… Read More »

Peru Foreign Policy

Relations with the USA traditionally had foreign policy priority for Peru. But while in 2007 30% of Peruvian exports to the USA were still accounted for, this fell to 15.1% of total exports in 2015. Only 20.6% of the imports came from the USA in 2015. After lengthy negotiations, the Trans-Pacific Trade Agreement TPP was… Read More »

Peru Economy Development

Peru Economy Estimated GDP: $ 206.5 billion Per capita income (purchasing power parity): 12,323 PPP $ (2018, HDR 19) Human Development Rank (HDI): Rank 82 (2018, HDR 19) Population prone to multidimensional poverty: 12.5% (2018, HDR 19) Distribution of income (Gini coefficient): 0.433 (2018, HDR 19) Economic Transformation Index (BTI): Rank 29 (of 129) (2018)… Read More »

Peru Economic Sectors

The impact of the corona pandemic on production in the country in March and April 2020 is devastating. The INEI gives the decline in sectoral production in April as follows: 57.82% for fisheries, 42.29% for mining, 54.91 for manufacturing, 89.91% for construction, 65.41 for retail, 94.55% for hotels and restaurants. Only agriculture was able to… Read More »

Peru Development Cooperation

Poverty and Poverty Reduction In Peru, wealth is concentrated in a few cities, mostly on the coast, while the rural population of the mountains lives in poverty. From the beginning, the Humalas government attached great importance to the question of social “inclusion” within government policy. The Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion, created in 2011,… Read More »

Peru Society

Proportion of literate adults: 94.1% (2018, HDR 19) Major religions: Catholicism approx. 89%, Protestant 7% Urban population: 77.9% (2018, HDR 19) Life expectancy: 76.5 (2018, HDR 19) Gender Inequality Index: 0.381 (2018, HDR 19) Child mortality under five years (out of 1000): 15 (2018, HDR 19) Stl. Education expenditure (% GNP): 3.9% (2018, HDR 19)… Read More »

Peru Education and Health

Education Schoolchildren from a slum In recent years the government has made great efforts to promote the educational system. In 2005, 17% of the state budget was devoted to this area, which corresponds to 2.8% of the gross domestic product. According to CEPAL, the average in Latin America is 18% and 4%, respectively. The degree… Read More »

Peru Everyday Life

Currency: New Peruvian Sol Exchange rate: 4.45 per € (January 4, 2021) Time zone: CET -6 hours Country code (phone): +51 International Airport (IATA): LIM (Lima) Climate (for capital): temperate, humid Entry According to a2zgov, you do not need a visa to enter Peru and the passport must be valid for at least six months… Read More »

Peru Culture

Arts and Culture The indigenous cultures of Peru are rich and diverse, but often obscure and hide their expressions. The word “Indio” is negative because it is associated with serfdom, forced labor, abuse and inferiority. When indigenous peoples migrate to the outskirts of large cities, the process of “cholificación” begins immediately, the adaptation to white… Read More »

Travelling to Peru

Travel, transportation and traffic Tourists can get practical travel tips from the Foreign Office or from the Internet Tourist Office. Also Promperu and go2Peru convey Find out for cultural and adventure tourists. Lima recently started offering guided city tours with audio guides. There are a total of seven city tours that can be accessed or… Read More »

Bolivia Geography

The natural area of Bolivia is extremely multifaceted and also includes extremes. Due to the diverse topographical conditions in the country, there is a rich variety of plants, flowers and trees. There are also various bodies of water that influence the landscape and climate. In Bolivia there are also extreme differences in the altitude of… Read More »

Geographical Location of Bolivia

Location of Bolivia in the middle of South America Bolivia is a landlocked country in the heart of South America (17 00 S and 65 00 W), surrounded by Brazil (border length 3,423 km) in the north and east, Paraguay (750 km) and Argentina (832 km) in the south and Chile (869 km) km) and… Read More »

Bolivia Population

Social policy With regard to social policy, the MAS government pursued a policy of redistributing state revenues in the early years. In addition, Bolivia was able to benefit from the high world market price and the good conditions for gas sales to Argentina and Brazil until 2014. The Bolivian state was not only able to… Read More »

Bolivia Natural Resources and Climate Change

Natural resources The Uyuni Salt Lake The Madidi National Park The national parks Noel Kempff Mercado (registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List), Madidi, Tunari, Eduardo Avaroa Andean fauna, Kaa-lya del Gran Chaco and Carrasco are among the many protected areas (see also Amazonia) of Bolivia. These national parks are not only important for Bolivia’s… Read More »

Bolivia Ecological Problems

Deforestation Despite its size and low population density, as well as poor industrial development, the country’s environmental problems are considerable. The main reasons for this are the inadequate use of sensitive ecosystems by people and the lack of enforcement of existing environmental laws. Perhaps the most serious is deforestation, to which, according to various reports,… Read More »

Bolivia Politics

The pre-Columbian cultures Bolivia’s roots go back much further than the arrival of the Spaniards or the Inca Empire. According to thesciencetutor, it is no coincidence that Peru and Bolivia are considered the cradles of the pre-Columbian civilization in South America. This is important to keep in mind, because today’s indigenous population (Aymaras, Quechuas, Guaranís,… Read More »

Bolivia Recent History

Spanish conquest and colonial rule Cerro Rico de Potosí View of the old coin in Potosí When the Spaniards arrived in present-day Peru in 1531, the Inca Empire was divided between the Atahuallpa and Huascar brothers. This situation made the capture and murder of the last Inca ruler Atahuallpa by the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro… Read More »