Category Archives: Europe

The world’s second most active volcano is in Europe. It’s Mount Etna in Italy. Vatnajökull (or Vatna Glacier) is Europe’s largest glacier with an area of more than 8,000 square kilometers. Europe has the highest GDP (income per person) of all the continents. As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 45 countries in Europe.
In the coastal fringes of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, as well as on the Mediterranean islands, there are large areas of Mediterranean brown earth and terra rossa. The latter arise on hard, pure limestone in an alternately humid, subtropical climate. They are considered to be relic soils dating from the tertiary and interglacial periods. The Mediterranean brown soils that occur in association with them are limited to moist locations with often clay-rich carbonate rock or clay-free rock as a substrate.

Dark clay soils are good arable soils and occur over a large area, for example in south-eastern Europe, as guide soil. They arise in warm to moderately humid climates and have a mighty humus and clay-rich A horizon. As a result of their alternating moisture content, the clays of this horizon swell or shrink depending on the water content.

Marsh and floodplain soils arise on the mostly clay-rich deposits of rivers or seas. They have a special, periodically changing groundwater and soil water balance. In this case, the soil-forming process is so-called gleying, the interplay between reduction when saturated with water and oxidation when air enters, which is associated with a shift and precipitation of substances. Gleye can be good soils if the water balance can be regulated.

Peatland occurs as a process when conditions occur due to particularly high groundwater levels or dammed rainwater with the exclusion of air in which the organic matter is no longer decomposed and peat is formed (peatland). This phenomenon can be seen in Central Europe in the high altitudes of the mountains, in depressions and in some river plains. Extensive boggy soils are only found in the cold zone of the boreal coniferous forests in northern Scandinavia and Eastern Europe.

Under the designation permafrost and tundra soils, different soils are summarized, which have a low soil thickness and a high proportion of raw humus in common. For the complete list of nations in Europe, please visit

Iceland 1980

In 1980, Iceland was a small, isolated island nation in the North Atlantic Ocean, known for its stunning natural landscapes, strong sense of national identity, and a relatively small population. The country, located just south of the Arctic Circle, had a unique history and geopolitical position that influenced its development during this period. Here is… Read More »

Hungary 1980

In 1980, Hungary, located in Central Europe, was part of the Eastern Bloc and under communist rule, but it had a distinct political and economic situation compared to other Soviet satellite states. Hungary, often referred to as the “Happiest Barracks” within the Eastern Bloc, had a relatively more open and prosperous society compared to its… Read More »

Greece 1980

Greece in 1980 was a country at a crossroads, marked by political changes, economic challenges, and a rich cultural heritage. This Mediterranean nation, located in southeastern Europe, had a complex history that had seen it transition from a military dictatorship to a democracy and was facing economic difficulties while preserving its deep-rooted cultural traditions. Political… Read More »

Germany 1980

In 1980, Germany was a country divided into two separate states: West Germany (officially the Federal Republic of Germany, or FRG) and East Germany (officially the German Democratic Republic, or GDR). This division was a result of the aftermath of World War II and the Cold War, which had a significant impact on the political,… Read More »

France 1980

In 1980, France was a country at a crossroads, marked by social and political changes, a thriving cultural scene, and economic challenges. Here is an overview of France in 1980: Political Landscape: Presidential System: According to pharmacylib, France operated under a semi-presidential system, with a President as the head of state and a Prime Minister… Read More »

Finland 1980

In 1980, Finland was a Nordic country in Northern Europe with a unique political, economic, and social landscape. It was known for its commitment to social welfare, education, and neutrality in international conflicts. Here is an overview of Finland in 1980: Political Landscape: Parliamentary Democracy: According to pharmacylib, Finland had a parliamentary democracy with a… Read More »

Estonia 1980

In 1980, Estonia was one of the three Baltic republics, alongside Latvia and Lithuania, that made up the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, a part of the larger Soviet Union. Estonia, despite being under Soviet control, had a distinct history and culture, and the 1980s marked a period of growing national consciousness and resistance to Soviet… Read More »

Denmark 1980

In 1980, Denmark was a prosperous and stable Scandinavian nation in Northern Europe with a rich history, a well-developed welfare state, and a strong focus on progressive social policies. This overview provides insights into the political landscape, economic conditions, social dynamics, and notable events in Denmark during that period. Political Landscape: Monarchy: According to neovideogames,… Read More »

Czech Republic 1980

In 1980, the Czech Republic was a part of the former Czechoslovakia, a socialist state in Central Europe. The country had a rich history but was under communist rule as part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War era. This overview provides insights into the political landscape, economic conditions, social dynamics, and notable events… Read More »

Cyprus 1980

In 1980, Cyprus was a divided island nation located in the eastern Mediterranean, known for its complex history, ongoing ethnic tensions, and geopolitical significance. This overview will provide insights into the political landscape, economic conditions, social dynamics, and notable events in Cyprus during that period. Political Landscape: According to neovideogames, Cyprus was a divided island… Read More »

Croatia 1980

In 1980, Croatia was one of the six constituent republics of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). At that time, Yugoslavia was a complex and diverse federation led by Marshal Josip Broz Tito. This overview will provide insights into the political landscape, economic conditions, social dynamics, and notable events in Croatia during that… Read More »

Bulgaria 1980

In 1980, Bulgaria, located in Southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, was a communist state under the control of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP). Here’s a detailed description of Bulgaria in 1980: Political Landscape: Communist Rule: According to mathgeneral, Bulgaria had been under communist rule since 1946 when the BCP, led by Georgi Dimitrov, took… Read More »

Bosnia and Herzegovina 1980

In 1980, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a constituent republic within the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a multi-ethnic and socialist state in Southeastern Europe. Here’s a detailed description of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1980: Political Landscape: Part of Yugoslavia: In 1980, Bosnia and Herzegovina was one of the six constituent republics of Yugoslavia, alongside… Read More »

Belgium 1980

In 1980, Belgium was a diverse and prosperous Western European country known for its rich history, political complexity, and economic strength. Here’s a detailed description of Belgium in 1980: Political Landscape: Constitutional Monarchy: According to hyperrestaurant, Belgium is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. King Baudouin I was the reigning monarch in… Read More »

Belarus 1980

In 1980, Belarus, then known as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR), was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. It was a period marked by the country’s close alignment with the Soviet Union, significant industrial development, and the enduring legacy of World War II. Here’s a detailed description of Belarus in 1980:… Read More »

Austria 1980

In 1980, Austria, a landlocked Central European country, was characterized by political stability, a strong economy, and a rich cultural heritage. Here is a detailed description of Austria in 1980: Political Landscape: Government: According to historyaah, Austria had a stable parliamentary democracy with a federal structure. The country’s head of state was President Rudolf Kirchschläger,… Read More »

Andorra 1980

In 1980, Andorra was a small European principality situated in the eastern Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain. It is one of the world’s smallest countries, known for its picturesque landscapes, tourism, and unique political structure. Here’s a detailed description of Andorra in 1980: Political Landscape: Co-Principality: According to franciscogardening, Andorra has a unique political… Read More »

Albania 1980

In 1980, Albania was a small and isolated communist state located in southeastern Europe. Under the leadership of Enver Hoxha, who had been in power since the end of World War II, Albania had become one of the most isolated and repressive countries in the world. Here, we will describe Albania in 1980, touching on… Read More »

Ireland 1984

In 1984, Ireland was a nation characterized by its unique blend of history, culture, and political dynamics. The country’s social, economic, and political landscape was undergoing significant changes, reflecting both its rich traditions and its aspirations for modernization. Political Landscape: Ireland was a parliamentary democracy with a President serving as the head of state and… Read More »

United Kingdom 1981

In 1981, the United Kingdom (UK) was a nation in the midst of political, economic, and cultural changes. Comprising England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, the UK was a significant player on the global stage. Here is an overview of the United Kingdom in 1981: Political Landscape: According to ethnicityology, the UK was a constitutional… Read More »

Ukraine 1981

In 1981, Ukraine was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, officially known as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. This period was marked by the continuation of Soviet policies and the dominance of the Communist Party, but it also witnessed some unique aspects of Ukraine’s culture and history. Here’s an overview of Ukraine in 1981:… Read More »

Turkey 1981

In 1981, Turkey, officially known as the Republic of Turkey, was a nation situated at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, with a rich history, diverse culture, and a complex political landscape. This year marked an era of political transition, economic challenges, and geopolitical importance for the country. Political Landscape: According to ehistorylib, Turkey’s political… Read More »

Switzerland 1981

In 1981, Switzerland, officially known as the Swiss Confederation, was a prosperous and politically stable country located in the heart of Europe. Renowned for its picturesque landscapes, neutrality in international conflicts, and a strong financial sector, Switzerland stood as an epitome of stability and prosperity. Here’s an overview of Switzerland in 1981: Political Landscape: According… Read More »

Sweden 1981

In 1981, Sweden, officially known as the Kingdom of Sweden, was a thriving Scandinavian nation situated in Northern Europe. It was characterized by its stable political environment, strong economy, and extensive welfare state. Here’s an overview of Sweden in 1981: Political Landscape: According to dentistrymyth, Sweden’s political landscape in 1981 was characterized by a parliamentary… Read More »

Spain 1981

In 1981, Spain, officially known as the Kingdom of Spain, was undergoing a significant period of political transition and modernization. The country was in the process of consolidating its democracy following decades of authoritarian rule under General Francisco Franco. Here’s an overview of Spain in 1981: Political Context: According to constructmaterials, Spain was transitioning from… Read More »

Slovenia 1981

In 1981, Slovenia was one of the six constituent republics of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia). This picturesque country, located in the heart of Europe, had a unique political, cultural, and economic landscape within the Yugoslav federation. Here’s an overview of Slovenia in 1981: Political Context: According to computergees, Slovenia was… Read More »

Slovakia 1981

In 1981, Slovakia was one of the two constituent parts of the former Czechoslovakia, a country located in Central Europe. Czechoslovakia was known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and a political system characterized by communist rule. Here’s an overview of Slovakia in 1981: Political Context: In 1981, Czechoslovakia was a federal republic consisting of… Read More »

Serbia 1981

In 1981, Serbia was a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was a multi-ethnic communist federation in Southeastern Europe. Serbia, with its capital in Belgrade, was one of the six republics within Yugoslavia and had a distinct history, culture, and political landscape within the broader Yugoslav context. Here is an overview… Read More »

San Marino 1981

In 1981, the Republic of San Marino, one of the world’s smallest and oldest sovereign states, was a landlocked microstate nestled in the heart of the Italian Peninsula. Despite its size and relative obscurity on the global stage, San Marino had a rich history, a unique political system, and a distinctive way of life that… Read More »

Russia 1981

In 1981, the Soviet Union, officially known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a vast and powerful socialist state that included Russia as its largest and most influential component. The Soviet Union was led by General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, and the country was marked by its distinctive political, economic, and social characteristics.… Read More »