Category Archives: Europe

The world’s second most active volcano is in Europe. It’s Mount Etna in Italy. Vatnajökull (or Vatna Glacier) is Europe’s largest glacier with an area of more than 8,000 square kilometers. Europe has the highest GDP (income per person) of all the continents. As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 45 countries in Europe.
In the coastal fringes of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, as well as on the Mediterranean islands, there are large areas of Mediterranean brown earth and terra rossa. The latter arise on hard, pure limestone in an alternately humid, subtropical climate. They are considered to be relic soils dating from the tertiary and interglacial periods. The Mediterranean brown soils that occur in association with them are limited to moist locations with often clay-rich carbonate rock or clay-free rock as a substrate.

Dark clay soils are good arable soils and occur over a large area, for example in south-eastern Europe, as guide soil. They arise in warm to moderately humid climates and have a mighty humus and clay-rich A horizon. As a result of their alternating moisture content, the clays of this horizon swell or shrink depending on the water content.

Marsh and floodplain soils arise on the mostly clay-rich deposits of rivers or seas. They have a special, periodically changing groundwater and soil water balance. In this case, the soil-forming process is so-called gleying, the interplay between reduction when saturated with water and oxidation when air enters, which is associated with a shift and precipitation of substances. Gleye can be good soils if the water balance can be regulated.

Peatland occurs as a process when conditions occur due to particularly high groundwater levels or dammed rainwater with the exclusion of air in which the organic matter is no longer decomposed and peat is formed (peatland). This phenomenon can be seen in Central Europe in the high altitudes of the mountains, in depressions and in some river plains. Extensive boggy soils are only found in the cold zone of the boreal coniferous forests in northern Scandinavia and Eastern Europe.

Under the designation permafrost and tundra soils, different soils are summarized, which have a low soil thickness and a high proportion of raw humus in common. For the complete list of nations in Europe, please visit

Norway Road Network

The E16 over the Filefjell. According to wholevehicles, the Norwegian road network can be described as very extensive, but is not well developed due to the mountainous character of large parts of the country. Despite its vastness, the road network is usually in good condition. Because the population is mainly concentrated along the coast and… Read More »

Netherlands Road Network

Road type Length (2018) Highway 3,047 km Provincial way 6,536 km Water board road 6,957 km Municipal road 119,567 km Total road length 139,691 km According to wholevehicles, the Dutch road network is particularly dense, as a result of the high population density. The road network is numbered from 1 to 999 in one nationwide… Read More »

Montenegro Road Network

Montenegro’s main road network, with the A1 in green. According to wholevehicles, Montenegro has a fairly dense network of roads, but traveling is a time-consuming affair due to the country’s mountainous nature. The road network consists of mostly winding two-lane roads that sometimes overcome large differences in height. In Montenegro there is one highway northeast… Read More »

Moldova Road Network

In general, the road network is in a deplorable condition. The main road from Chişinu to the Romanian border at Leuşeni, on the other hand, has been renovated to modern standards. The other main routes are paved, but many regional roads have unpaved sections. There is one road that is sometimes considered a motorway, the… Read More »

Macedonia Road Network

The highway network of North Macedonia. According to wholevehicles, North Macedonia’s public road network covers 14,182 kilometers, including 294 kilometers of motorway, 911 kilometers of national roads, 3,771 kilometers of regional roads and 9,258 kilometers of local roads. The main road network consists of A-roads, the avtopatishta which can also be motorways. North Macedonia is… Read More »

Luxembourg Road Network

According to wholevehicles, Luxembourg has a fairly dense road network, but most of the highways are in the south of the country. There are six highways, the A1 from Luxembourg to Trier in Germany, the A3 from Luxembourg to Metz in France, the A4 from Luxembourg to Esch-sur-Alzette, the A6 from Luxembourg to Arlon in… Read More »

Lithuania Road Network

The motorways and 2×2 expressways in Lithuania. According to wholevehicles, Lithuania has by far the best developed highway network of the Baltic countries. Formally, 400 kilometers of road has the status of a motorway, although the total number of kilometers of highway-like road is more than 500 kilometers. The A1 connects Vilnius and Kaunas with… Read More »

Latvia Road Network

As of January 1, 2019, Latvia had a network of 70,936 kilometers of road, of which 55,049 kilometers are unpaved and only 15,388 kilometers are paved. The proportion of unpaved roads in Latvia is much higher than in the other Baltic states. The state highway network consists of 20,066 kilometers of road, of which 9,254… Read More »

Kosovo Road Network

According to wholevehicles, Kosovo’s road network is underdeveloped, and there are no major international routes through the country. The main roads run from Priština to Skopje and Kukës in Albania. Little by little, new roads are being built, especially around Priština. A priority of the Kosovar government was a highway to Albania, which was built… Read More »

Italy Road Network

Already 2000 years ago the Romans started building roads in Italy. Some of the axes used by the Romans still have a prominent role in the Italian road network, albeit on new and modern roads, of course. In modern times, Italy was one of the first countries to start building motorways, Autostrada in Italian. Italy… Read More »

Ireland Road Network

According to wholevehicles, Ireland had a very limited motorway network until the late 1990s, which experienced rapid growth in the 2000s. In 2015, the highway network consisted of 913 kilometers. Traffic congestion occurs mainly in Dublin. There is also a bypass around Dublin, including a toll bridge. Between Dublin Port and the M1 on the… Read More »

Hungary Road Network

The autopályá and autóút with 2×2 lanes in Hungary. According to wholevehicles, Hungary has an extensive and well-developed road network. The country is one of the most important links for through traffic between Western and Central Europe to Southern and Eastern Europe. The Hungarian motorway network has been adequately developed and is still being expanded.… Read More »

Greece Road Network

According to wholevehicles, Greece is not an important transit country in Europe due to its eccentric location. Traditionally, it was located eccentrically in the European Union and could only be reached from the EU area with a ferry service to Italy. Since 2007, Bulgaria and Romania have been part of the EU and the country… Read More »

Germany Road Network

Germany’s autobahn network. History According to wholevehicles, the first initiatives to build motorways in Germany came from private parties. They were sensitive in the then Weimar Republic. In addition to the financial difficulties at this time, there was also the military aspect. The army command feared that motorways would complicate defenses in the event of… Read More »

France Road Network

According to wholevehicles, France has about 900,000 kilometers of paved roads. The country has 15,714 kilometers of highway and expressways, of which 157 kilometers in the overseas territories and 15,557 kilometers in Europe. Of these 15,557 kilometers, 11,696 kilometers consist of auto routes and 3,863 kilometers of express. The largest part of the motorway network… Read More »

Finland Road Network

The Vallation 8 at Masku, near Turku. History The Finnish road network was developed relatively late. Until the 1960s, many through -valatite were unpaved or gravel roads. In 1938 the Finnish road network was numbered for the first time. Because many roads were still gravel roads for a long time, the main roads are often… Read More »

Estonia Road Network

Estonia’s main road network (click to enlarge). According to wholevehicles, the road network in Estonia is not very extensive, which is due to the low population density. One third of Estonia’s residents live in Tallinn. Officially there are no motorways (kiirteed), but a number of roads do meet this qualification: in particular route 1 from… Read More »

Poland Religion, Geography, Politics and Population

Religion in Poland More than 90% of Poland’s population are Catholics. Transport in Poland City modes of transport are bus, trolleybus, tram, in Warsaw there is a metro. Buses, trolleybuses and trams run from 5:30 to 23:00. Single tickets for them are sold in the subway, newspaper, tobacco and other kiosks. They can also be… Read More »

Portugal Religion, Geography, Politics and Population

Religion in Portugal Most of the population of Portugal (94%) professes Catholicism, and various areas of Protestantism are also represented. There are Jewish communities in Lisbon and Porto (200 thousand people). About 5% of the country’s inhabitants recognize themselves as atheists. Transport in Portugal The main urban modes of transport are buses and trams, there… Read More »

Romania Religion, Geography, Politics and Population

Religion in Romania 87% of the believing population of the country are adherents of the Romanian Orthodox Church, 6% profess Protestantism, 6% – Catholicism and 3% – Greek Orthodoxy. Transport in Romania Romania can be reached by plane or train. The most convenient way is air travel. Otopeni International Airport is located 15 km from… Read More »

Russia Religion, Geography, Politics and Population

Religion in Russia The most common religion is Orthodox Christianity. A number of nations profess Islam, Buddhism, Catholicism, Judaism, etc. Transport in Russia In most cities of Russia, you can use buses, fixed-route taxis and taxis to get around. Trolleybuses, trams and metros run in large cities. The most common mode of transport between cities… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Avsallar, Turkey

The climate of Avsallar The town of Avsallar is about two hours travel time from the international airport of Antalya. Like most other villages between Side and Alanya, Avsallar has also been increasingly transformed into a tourist resort. The hotels are mostly located south of the busy main road D-400, which connects Antalya and Alanya.… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Amersfoort, Netherlands

The climate of Amersfoort Amersfoort is a large city in the northeast of the Utrechtat the border with Gelderland. The surroundings of Amersfoort have been inhabited for many centuries. The first mention of Amersfoort in the history books dates back to the 11th century AD. Amersfoort has had city rights since the 13th century. The… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Bergsviken, Sweden

The climate of Bergsviken Within the Köppen-Geiger climate system, Bergsviken has a Dfc climate. In common language we are talking about a cool continental climate or a cool continental climate. This climate type mainly occurs in locations closer to the Arctic Circle than the equator and where the influence of oceans is limited. It is… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Alingsås, Sweden

The climate of Alingsås According to, Alingsås has a temperate maritime climate. Within the Köppen-Geiger climate system that we use, this is the Cfb climate. This climate type is the result of the proximity to the sea. In this case, it is the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean that directly… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Antalya, Turkey

The climate of Antalya According to, Antalya is a large city on the Turkish Riviera. According to visitors, this is one of the more beautiful cities you can visit on the long Turkish coast. The old town, also called Kaleici, is completely car-free. This is where most shops and restaurants can be found. Antalya… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Vlore, Albania

The climate of Vlore According to shopareview, Vlora is located in the south of Albania, on the Mediterranean Sea. Because the city is increasingly developing as a tourist center, many restaurants and bars have been added in recent years. The city has a rich history and is considered an important center for the Orthodox Church… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Bergen, Belgium

The climate of Bergen According to shopareview, Mons (also known as Mons in Wallonia) is the capital of the province of Hainaut. It is an old city, which has been permanently inhabited since the time of the Romans. The first real settlement was built here in the seventh century AD. Only the remains of the… Read More »