Category Archives: Europe

The world’s second most active volcano is in Europe. It’s Mount Etna in Italy. Vatnajökull (or Vatna Glacier) is Europe’s largest glacier with an area of more than 8,000 square kilometers. Europe has the highest GDP (income per person) of all the continents. As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 45 countries in Europe.
In the coastal fringes of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, as well as on the Mediterranean islands, there are large areas of Mediterranean brown earth and terra rossa. The latter arise on hard, pure limestone in an alternately humid, subtropical climate. They are considered to be relic soils dating from the tertiary and interglacial periods. The Mediterranean brown soils that occur in association with them are limited to moist locations with often clay-rich carbonate rock or clay-free rock as a substrate.

Dark clay soils are good arable soils and occur over a large area, for example in south-eastern Europe, as guide soil. They arise in warm to moderately humid climates and have a mighty humus and clay-rich A horizon. As a result of their alternating moisture content, the clays of this horizon swell or shrink depending on the water content.

Marsh and floodplain soils arise on the mostly clay-rich deposits of rivers or seas. They have a special, periodically changing groundwater and soil water balance. In this case, the soil-forming process is so-called gleying, the interplay between reduction when saturated with water and oxidation when air enters, which is associated with a shift and precipitation of substances. Gleye can be good soils if the water balance can be regulated.

Peatland occurs as a process when conditions occur due to particularly high groundwater levels or dammed rainwater with the exclusion of air in which the organic matter is no longer decomposed and peat is formed (peatland). This phenomenon can be seen in Central Europe in the high altitudes of the mountains, in depressions and in some river plains. Extensive boggy soils are only found in the cold zone of the boreal coniferous forests in northern Scandinavia and Eastern Europe.

Under the designation permafrost and tundra soils, different soils are summarized, which have a low soil thickness and a high proportion of raw humus in common. For the complete list of nations in Europe, please visit businesscarriers.com.

Spain in the 19th Century Part II

But soon new reasons were added to the old reasons for dissent; and the regime was discredited by many court intrigues and, among other things, by a sensational scandal for the construction of railways, in which the queen mother Maria Cristina and her lover, later morganatic husband, the Muñoz, were involved. Then, a victorious military… Read More »

Spain in the 19th Century Part I

Then, against the foreign sovereign imposed by the emperor, Spain rose together, giving rise to a terrible revolt, which Napoleon tried in vain to suffocate, exhausting his army in the struggle (1808-13); and it was a war that was rightly called the war of independence because it seemed that the country in the defense of the noble… Read More »

Malta Under British Rule

The best known episode is that of the so-called “uprising of the priests”, led by the priest Gaetano Mannarino in 1775. The conspirators were surprised and severely punished. Another liberal conspiracy (led by Michele Vassalli), in which some French dignitary of the Order was involved, was discovered in 1797. For Malta 1997, please check aristmarketing.com. The… Read More »

Malta Prehistory

The stone civilization had magnificent manifestations in Malta. The beauty and abundance of Neolithic monuments give the island a first-rate importance in European prehistory. Few but sure are the traces of the Paleolithic period, attested by human teeth and by bones of mammals of geological age prior to ours, found in the cave of Ghar… Read More »

Malta Morphology and Climate

The archipelago of Malta consists of the two major islands Malta and Gozo, the interpost Comino, with the nearby Cominotto, and some minor islets, among which Filfola, south of the major island, is considered as the southernmost strip of Italy. The archipelago rises between 35 ° 48 ‘and 36 ° 5’ lat. N. and between… Read More »

Malta Modern History

Starting from the second half of the 13th century, Malta was ethnographically renewed by external and especially Italian contributions, which merged into a distinctly Sicilian complex. What remained was the Arabic dialect that the subsequent immigrants had to learn and contributed to modify, as will be said, in the phonetics, in the syntax and, moreover,… Read More »

Malta Literature in Italian Language

The brief mention above of the political history of the Maltese islands proves that the XIIIXIV centuries were a period of ethnic and therefore also cultural formation of mainly Latin and Italian origin; then there were the first affirmations of the vernacular, while the cultural tradition of the Latin language was maintained with the work… Read More »

Malta in the Late 20th Century

After the victory in the political elections of 1976, the Labor government established a strong convergence with the trade unions, while some measures were taken to regulate the economy. In foreign policy, after the withdrawal of the British military forces, according to the 1972 agreements, in March 1979, Malta confirmed his position of neutrality. Relations… Read More »

Malta Flora and Fauna

Flora and vegetation. – In the marine flora of the vicinity of the island the following algae can be remembered: Porphyra laciniata, Codium tomentosum, Padina pavonia (very common), Ulva latissima, Haliseris polypodioides, Sargassum bacciferum probably of Atlantic origin. The Zostera marina is abundant in the muddy coves near the coast. With regard to the terrestrial… Read More »

Malta During World War II

According to an assessment of December 31, 1946, the population rises to 295,247 residents Official languages ​​are English and Maltese, the latter introduced in 1934 to replace the Italian one. The constitution of 1939 had deprived the island of all autonomy. But the admiration aroused in England by the value and the spirit of sacrifice… Read More »

Malta Dialect and Literature

The dialect of Malta is an Arabic dialect that can be classified among the North African North African dialects. It has phonetic, morphological and syntactic peculiarities that can be explained by the particular evolution it has had and with the environment in which it has been handed down. Phonetically its characteristics with respect to other… Read More »

Malta Demography

The Maltese archipelago is one of the most densely populated areas in the Mediterranean basin. In the early Middle Ages the population of Malta was around 9000 residents; this must have been in 1240, the date of a report by Gilberto to Frederick II (see below: History). It was probably less than that figure in… Read More »

Malta Brief History

From the Phoenicians to the British. Colonized by the Phoenicians, then by the Carthaginians, Malta was influenced by the Greeks of Sicily. The Romans conquered it in 218 BC, uniting it with the province of Sicily. In the 4th century. AD it was attributed to the Eastern Empire; prey of the vandals and then of… Read More »

Malta Archaeology Between 1960 and 1974

The archaeological activity on the island of Malta in the fifteen years 1960-74 has brought a notable increase in knowledge both for the prehistoric and for the historical phases. For prehistoric times, the Anglo-Maltese excavations at Skorba have changed the traditional chronology of the various island phases: Skorba itself has given its name to a… Read More »

Malta Archaeology

New archaeological research and analytical insights on data known for some time have allowed fundamental advances in knowledge of Malta’s antiquities in the last decade. As regards the prehistoric phase, the activity of the Italian mission of the Camuno Center for prehistoric studies should be noted which, between 1985 and 1987, achieved results of considerable… Read More »

Malta During the Second World War

At the beginning of July 1940 the English fleet H (Adm. Somerville) moved from Gibraltar to escort to Malta, and deliver it to the Eastern Mediterranean fleet under the command of Adm. A. Cunningham, a large convoy with very precious cargo for the defense of Alexandria. On that occasion the minesweepers of Malta managed to… Read More »

Malta Arts

It has already been said (see above: Prehistory) of the monumental remains left in Malta by the Neolithic civilization. Of Roman Malta, Cicero, in the Verrines, remembers the sanctuary of Juno, rich in ex-votos. Epigraphic texts also mention a temple of Apollo. The materials of Melita and the other Roman city on the island of… Read More »

Malta Geography, Population, Economy and Language

Malta Island state in southern Europe. Its territory, an archipelago extending for about 50 km from NW to SE and made up of two major islands (Malta, 245.7 km 2 and Gozo, 67.1 km 2) and three other islets (Comino, Cominotto and Filfola), is located in the center of the Mediterranean, on the Sicilian continental… Read More »

Malta Economic Conditions

The very special function to which the group of these islands is called due to its position and current political relevance, decisively influences their economic activity, animating their transit trade, which is very lively at all times; but also agricultural practices have found ample development there, despite the very unfavorable natural conditions (scarcity of arable… Read More »

Malta Demographics 2014

Demography and economic geography. – Southern European island state. The population (430,146 residents, According to an estimate by UNDESA, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, of 2014), 93% urban, is made up of Maltese and some minorities, including the British. Population growth is fairly stable (0.3% per year from 2005 to 2015), with… Read More »

Malta Demographics 2005

HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Southern European island state. The 92 % urban population (378,132 at the 1995 census ; 402,000 at the 2005 estimate) is made up of Maltese (93.8 %) and some minorities, including the British. The capital Valletta (7170 residents in 2004) is an integral part of an urban-port conurbation of over 200,000… Read More »

Malta Demographics 1998

HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Island state located in the center of the Mediterranean, south of Sicily. The territory, made up of the permanently inhabited islands of Malta, Comino and Gozo, and other smaller islands, measures 316 km ² ; the climate is typically Mediterranean. The population (384. 000 residents, According to an estimate of 1998)… Read More »

Malta Demographics 1991

In 1985, 345,518 residents were registered; a 1991 estimate raised the state’s population to 355,910. The migratory movement is, on the whole, rather contained and continues to register negative balances, but not such as to exceed and cancel, as in the recent past, the contribution of natural growth. Therefore, during the second half of the… Read More »

Malta Demographics 1967

On November 21, 1964 Malta, formerly a British colony, became an independent state within the Commonwealth. Head of state was the ruler of the United Kingdom, represented by a governor general. Since 13 December 1974 Malta is a republic. Head of State is the President of the Republic, elected for 5 years by the Parliament.… Read More »

Malta Geopolitics

Malta is an island state in southern Europe not far from Sicily and about three hundred kilometers from the Libyan and Tunisian coasts. Throughout history its geographical position has been a strategic advantage, but it has also imposed numerous dominations on the population, from Carthaginian to English. From the United Kingdom, Malta gained independence in… Read More »

Malta History – the Early 20th Century

The threat was withdrawn in 1902 due to the resistance of the Maltese, who sent a delegation to London, and probably also out of deference to Italian public opinion and the government of Italy. The same year Strickland left Malta; the year before, the nationalist club “La Giovine Malta” had been founded. However, a decree… Read More »

Malta History – the 17th Century

The victory of the Maltese and of the Order stopped the expansion movement of the Turks: and Malta was, at the time, truly “antemural” of Italy. The Turkish threat still aroused alarm several times, as there were constant provocations by the Order’s galleys and Maltese corsairs. In 1614, a Turkish squad commanded by Khalīl Pascià,… Read More »

Malta History – Middle Ages and Modern Age

The Maltese Islands, attributed to ‘ Im but the East in sec. IV d. C., underwent the same events of Sicily; apparently submitted to the Vandals of Africa for a very short time from 454 to 464 and to the Goths after 464, they were reunited by Belisarius to the Empire in 533. There is… Read More »

Malta Politics and Religion

Constitutional and administrative order. – According to the constitution of April 14, 1921, suspended in 1930, modified and reinstated in 1932 and suspended again on November 2, 1933, Malta was an English possession with responsible government. The provisions of the constitution were as follows: The Governor (Governor and Commander – in – Chief), representative of… Read More »

Malta Geology

The islands of the small archipelago are made up almost exclusively of marine sediments of the lower and middle Miocene, only with small strips of terrestrial deposits of the Quaternary. The base of the stratigraphic series is formed by nulliporic and coralligenous limestones (“lower coral limestones” by the authors), which contain Foraminifera (eg. Lepidocyclina dispansa… Read More »