Category Archives: Europe

The world’s second most active volcano is in Europe. It’s Mount Etna in Italy. Vatnajökull (or Vatna Glacier) is Europe’s largest glacier with an area of more than 8,000 square kilometers. Europe has the highest GDP (income per person) of all the continents. As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 45 countries in Europe.
In the coastal fringes of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, as well as on the Mediterranean islands, there are large areas of Mediterranean brown earth and terra rossa. The latter arise on hard, pure limestone in an alternately humid, subtropical climate. They are considered to be relic soils dating from the tertiary and interglacial periods. The Mediterranean brown soils that occur in association with them are limited to moist locations with often clay-rich carbonate rock or clay-free rock as a substrate.

Dark clay soils are good arable soils and occur over a large area, for example in south-eastern Europe, as guide soil. They arise in warm to moderately humid climates and have a mighty humus and clay-rich A horizon. As a result of their alternating moisture content, the clays of this horizon swell or shrink depending on the water content.

Marsh and floodplain soils arise on the mostly clay-rich deposits of rivers or seas. They have a special, periodically changing groundwater and soil water balance. In this case, the soil-forming process is so-called gleying, the interplay between reduction when saturated with water and oxidation when air enters, which is associated with a shift and precipitation of substances. Gleye can be good soils if the water balance can be regulated.

Peatland occurs as a process when conditions occur due to particularly high groundwater levels or dammed rainwater with the exclusion of air in which the organic matter is no longer decomposed and peat is formed (peatland). This phenomenon can be seen in Central Europe in the high altitudes of the mountains, in depressions and in some river plains. Extensive boggy soils are only found in the cold zone of the boreal coniferous forests in northern Scandinavia and Eastern Europe.

Under the designation permafrost and tundra soils, different soils are summarized, which have a low soil thickness and a high proportion of raw humus in common.

Scotland Geography

Scotland – key data Land Area: 78,772 sq km Population: 5.2 million (2008 estimate). Composition: bulkheads 88%,English people 8%, Irish, Welsh and others 4%. Ethnic groups: Whites 97.99%, South Asians 1.09%, Blacks 0.16%, multiracial 0.25%, Chinese, 0.32%, others 0.19% (2001 census). Population density: 64 residents per square kilometer Capital: Edinburgh (463,510 residents, 2006) Highest point: Ben… Read More »

England History Timeline

According to constructmaterials, England is the largest and most populous of the four constituent countries of Great Britain. The country’s residents make up more than 83% of the total population of Great Britain, and the English mainland makes up most of the southern two thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares borders with… Read More »

Russia Theater

In Russia the theater, as it is understood today, was born very late: exactly on October 17, 1672, by a decision of Tsar Alexis who only a quarter of a century earlier had issued a decree to prohibit not only shows but even secular music., among other things ordering the destruction of all musical instruments.… Read More »

Montenegro Country Overview

Montenegro is located in southeastern Europe on the southern tip of the Adriatic coast. The country borders Serbia to the north, Kosovo to the east, Albania to the southeast and Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia to the west. Montenegro is a sparsely populated mountainous region on the Adriaticand lies in the Southeast Dinarides. In the… Read More »

Rhodes, Greece

Greece is on Mediterranean Sea and borders on Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey. Greece is made up of the greek mainland at the southernmost end of the Balkans, the Peloponnese peninsula and numerous islands mainly in the Aegean Sea, in the Ionian Sea but also in the Libyan Sea. The Peloponnesian Peninsula is formed by… Read More »

Working and Living in Norway

Immigration, permanent residence, residence permit If you are staying in the country for more than three months, you will need to register with the police. After 5 years of uninterrupted residence, you have the right to permanent residence. Even if you are not obliged to apply, a permanent residence permit can have advantages, such as… Read More »

Amsterdam Sights

City highlights Anne Frankhuis In the rear building on Prinsengracht in Amsterdam, the Jewish girl Anne Frank hid from July 6, 1942 to August 4, 1944 with her mother and sister as well as her father and four other people, before she was first transferred to the Westerbork Jewish transit camp after her arrest was… Read More »

Finland Geography

TERRITORY: MORPHOLOGY Geologically, the Finnish territory constitutes a section of the Baltic shield, the archaeozoic base that forms the substratum of the entire Scandinavian peninsula. Affected by the Caledonian orogeny during the Paleozoic – an era in which there were also volcanic manifestations – and subsequently peneplanated by erosion, the reliefs did not undergo further… Read More »

Finland Industry and Service

ECONOMY: MINERAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRY There are various subsoil resources and some minerals are relatively abundant; first the iron and copper pyrites, then sulfur, lead, nickel, gold, silver, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, mercury, asbestos. Finland is one of the first European producers of chromite and zinc. However, the lack of energy sources is serious due to… Read More »

World Heritage Sites in Croatia

On the basis of the 1990 Constitution, amended in 1992, 1997 and 2000, the president of the republic is endowed with broad powers and is elected by direct suffrage for 5 years, while the single-chamber Parliament after an amendment to the Constitution in 2001 which abolished the Chamber of the counties, it is formed by… Read More »

Austria Literature Part II

The leveling and rationalist tendency of the Enlightenment attenuates the differences between Germany and Austria, but does not stimulate the Austrian creative imagination, which later also reluctant to penetrate the German idealistic philosophy. The very short romantic season, mediated by the Schlegel brothers, has a very long and fruitful ending in Biedermeier, which coincides with… Read More »

Austria Literature Part I

A distinction that is not purely geographical between Austrian literature and German literature has reason to exist starting from the age of the Reformation, when a Protestant and particularistic north, later dominated by the Prussian spirit, came to oppose a south, with Vienna at the center, absolutist and counter-reformist, in direct contact with the refined… Read More »

Denmark Modern and Present Arts

Art until 1945 The artists of the 20th century broke with tradition. In 1918, Vilhelm Lundstrøm (* 1893, † 1950) introduced French Cubism with his “packing box pictures”, which paved the way for abstract art. Particularly important teachers were K. Zahrtmannand his student H. Giersing, who developed an intensive, coloristic style of painting. This French-influenced… Read More »

History of Danish Arts

Denmark is a kingdom with the capital Copenhagen. In addition to the Jutland peninsula, the country consists of around 490 islands, most of which are located in the Baltic Sea. Of the hundred or so inhabited islands, Zealand and Funen are the most densely populated. Cool summers and mild winters determine the climate. Almost a… Read More »

World Heritages in Denmark Part II

Aasivissuit – Nipisat: Inuit hunting grounds between ice and sea (World Heritage) Aasivissuit – Nipisat: Inuit hunting grounds between ice and sea (World Heritage) Relics of human history up to 4,200 years old have been found in the Aasivissuit – Nipisat area in the central part of West Greenland. Excavations show that the Inuit (Eskimos)… Read More »

Denmark Culture

An independent Danish culture becomes tangible in the Viking Age with the development of a Christian kingdom under Harald Blauzahn . Their testimonies are runic inscriptions, the historical story “Gesta Danorum” (Danish literature), which was still written in Latin, and church building in the High Middle Ages, which took over influences from France and forms… Read More »

World Heritages in Denmark Part I

Herrnhuter Settlement Christiansfeld (World Heritage) Christiansfeld, which lies between Kolding and Haderslev in southern Jutland, is a well-preserved Danish Moravian settlement. It was founded in 1773 as a settlement of the Brethren from the Saxon Herrnhut and reflects the beliefs of this evangelical free church. The city was built by the faithful around a central… Read More »

Ilulissat Icefjord (World Heritage)

The Sermeq-Kujalleq glacier flows into the sea in the ice fjord on the west coast of Greenland. The glacier, which is up to 700 m thick, moves at a speed of 40 m per day in the summer months, making it one of the few glaciers in Greenland that reach the sea. Ilulissat Icefjord: Facts… Read More »

Roskilde Cathedral (World Heritage)

The cathedral in Roskilde on the island of Zealand was built in the 12th century and is not only the largest church, but also the oldest Gothic brick building in Denmark. The sacred building has been expanded several times over the years and served as a burial place for Danish rulers. Roskilde Cathedral: Facts Official… Read More »

Norway Culture and World Heritages

An independent Norwegian culture becomes tangible in the Viking Age, when Harald I Fairhair founded the kingdom. The fact that the Vikings were not only bloodthirsty seafarers but also skilled carpenters is proven by their temples, royal halls and the famous Oseberg ship. Their descendants made use of their sacred art skills in building wooden… Read More »

Alta Rock Carvings (World Heritage)

Alta is one of the most important prehistoric sites in Norway. About 6000 years ago, the people of the Altafjord began to carve pictures into stones, mostly reindeer, elk, but also birds, boats and people. The pictures give an insight into the life of the Neolithic. Check thenailmythology to see Norway Landmarks. Alta Rock Art: Facts… Read More »

Røros Mining Town (World Heritage)

Røros is the best preserved mining town in Norway. The city center has numerous old wooden houses, narrow streets and villas, which are dominated by the mighty church tower. Copper mining began in the 17th century and ended in 1973. The world heritage was expanded in 2010 to include the agricultural and industrial landscape. Check thedresswizard… Read More »

Bryggen (World Heritage)

The city of Bergen, located on the Byfjord, was founded in 1070 and is one of the most important trading cities in Norway after Oslo. German Hanseatic merchants operated trading offices in the city until the 16th century. A large part of these wooden merchant houses have been preserved to this day and give an… Read More »

Urnes Stave Church (World Heritage)

The stave churches were built in the early days of Christianization in Scandinavia, mostly between the 12th and 13th centuries. Urnes Stave Church is the oldest surviving church of its kind and is an outstanding example of Scandinavian church architecture. It combines the traditions of the Celts and Vikings with Romanesque stylistic devices in terms… Read More »

Ukraine and United Nations

New agreement in Minsk Parliamentary elections at the end of October were a major victory for the pro-European parties led by, among others, President Poroshenko and Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk. The five dominant parties formed a coalition government. No elections were held in rebel-held areas and in Crimea. Donetsk and Luhansk hosted their own elections… Read More »

Conflicts between Russia and Ukraine

Russia conquered Crimea President Putin was authorized by the upper house of the Russian parliament to intervene militarily in Ukraine, “wherever Russian life was threatened”. Ukraine was preparing for general mobilization and the Western Alliance NATO accused Russia of threatening peace and security in Europe. The Russian government, for its part, blamed the United States… Read More »

Ukraine Orange Revolution

40 years of silence When the Nazis were expelled in 1944, fighting continued between Ukrainian partisans and the Soviet Union. Only towards the end of the 1940’s did the Soviet Union have full control over Ukraine, but then hundreds of thousands of Ukrainians had been killed and probably even more sent to Siberia. No real… Read More »

Ukraine and Soviet Union

In February 2014, a popular uprising against the Ukrainian government led to an armed conflict that created the most dangerous political situation in Europe since World War II. When Russia tried to halt Ukraine’s rapprochement with Western Europe, a new “cold war” began to take shape after 25 years of relative tension between the West… Read More »

Serbia Relationship with Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina

According to zipcodesexplorer, Serbia is a country located in Southern Europe In relation to Serbia’s neighbors, the then President Tadić had taken several initiatives for historical reconciliation from 2010, with regard to Croatia in cooperation with the then President Ivo Josipović, but also in Bosnia. On the other hand, there were regular, persistent tensions arising… Read More »