Category Archives: Asia

In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. Asia’s size and position makes it the only continent that borders two other continents, Europe and Africa. The Asian continent has been the birthplace and cradle of the world’s most prominent religions, including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, and many others. The geographic term “Asia” was originally used by ancient Greeks to describe the civilizations east of their empire. Asia has both the highest and the lowest points on the surface of Earth, has the longest coastline of any continent. Asia’s ambitious civilization’s ultimately gave rise to some of the world’s most revolutionary ideas and important technology. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 48 countries in Asia. For the complete list of nations in Asia, please visit

Relations between India and Pakistan

Relations between India and Pakistan have been conflicting since August 1947, when Islamabad was established in the Indian territories which became independent, with the aim of creating a nation for all Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. The partition process was painful and cost about half a million deaths, triggering the mass displacement of millions of… Read More »

Pakistan Since the 1990s

In 1990, President Ghulām Isḥaq Khān resigned the Bhutto government and declared a state of emergency; the subsequent elections were won by the conservative Islamic Democratic Alliance (AID) and the prime minister became M. Nawāz Sharīf. The continuation of the inter-ethnic unrest which was superimposed on the popular protests for the participation of the Pakistan… Read More »

Pakistan Population and Economy in the 1990’s

Population According to some estimates, in 1998 the population amounted to almost 148.2 million residents (to which we must add at least one million Afghan refugees, mostly hospitalized in special camps). It includes a great variety of ethnic groups, evidenced by the number of languages ​​spoken: even if the official ones are Urdū and English,… Read More »

Pakistan Population and Economy in the 1950’s

Population. – The 1951 census estimated the population of Pakistan (excluding the territories of Āzād Kashmir, Gilgit, Baltistān, Janagadh and Manavadar) at 75,842,135 residents, with a density of 80 residents per km 2. The percentage of males (just over 40 million) appeared to be somewhat higher than that of women. Regarding religion, 85% of the… Read More »

Pakistan Population and Archeology

Area and population. – Territorially shrunk following the split (1971) of the eastern province (today Bangla Desh), the Pakistan currently occupies the north-west area. of the Indian peninsula, surrounded by Afghānistān, Iran, the Soviet Union, China, the Indian Union and the Arabian Sea on an area of ​​803,940 km 2. The population, estimated in 1974,… Read More »

Pakistan Lexicon of the 21st Century

Pakistan. – Divided by religious contrasts, ethnic clashes and profound social inequalities, Fr., on the threshold of the new century, was still poised between backwardness and modernization, struggling to find a political structure capable of guaranteeing the consolidation of democratic institutions with difficulty established in the mid-eighties of the 20th century. The government headed by… Read More »

Pakistan ISI

The ISI: a state within a state ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence) was founded in 1948 to coordinate d’ functions intelligence of the army, navy and air. It is the most powerful and best known of the three Pakistani services, which also include the Intelligence Bureau (Ib) and Military Intelligence (Mi). The agency has experienced mixed fortunes… Read More »

Pakistan in the 2000’s

Divided by religious contrasts, ethnic clashes and profound social inequalities, Fr., on the threshold of the year 2000, was still poised between backwardness and modernization and was struggling to find a political structure capable of guaranteeing the consolidation of the democratic institutions that had laboriously established themselves in mid-eighties. This internal instability was matched, on… Read More »

Pakistan in the 2000’s

Country in the balance between authoritarianism and democracy, Pakistan started at the end of the first decade of the 21st century. a process of consolidation of democratic institutions, albeit in a still highly critical context. In fact, the main problems of the country remained unsolved: the weight of the military, the rampant corruption, the fragmentation… Read More »

Pakistan in the 1990’s

The transition phase from the military regime to a complete parliamentary democracy, which began in 1985 with the restoration of the Constitution, proved to be extremely complex and contradictory. In fact, it was heavily conditioned in its stability and credibility by the lack of renewal of the elites executives, who have in fact maintained consolidated… Read More »

Pakistan in the 1960’s

The new constitution, on which a specially elected commission had worked since February 1960, was promulgated on March 1, 1962. In accordance with the theory of basic democracy, it was strongly centralizing; every executive power belonged to the president; the single chamber of Parliament comprised 150 members from each of the two halves of the… Read More »

Pakistan in the 1950’s

Dying on 11 September 1948 in Karachi, the qā’id-i a‛ẓam (supreme head) Moḥammed ‛Alī Jinnāḥ (see App. II, 11, pp. 6-7), main architect of the Pakistan and his first governor general, he left behind a country that seemed to have little chance of surviving him. Divided into two sections hundreds of kilometers away from each… Read More »

Pakistan Human and Economic Geography 2007

South Asian state. According to the census data, in 1998 the Pakistan counted 132,352,279 residents, while in 2005 the population was estimated at about 157,935,000 residents; to this figure must be added a number of Afghan refugees difficult to specify: according to the estimates of humanitarian organizations there are between 2 and 3 million individuals,… Read More »

Pakistan Economy in the 2010’s

South Asian state. According to an estimate by UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), in 2014 the Pakistan counted 185,132,926 residents, With a growth rate of 1.5% compared to the previous year. The average density is 226 residents / km 2, with notable differences within the country; as well as in urban… Read More »

Pakistan Economy and Energy

Economy The precarious security conditions that characterize the country represent a structural factor that negatively affects the possibilities for economic growth, especially as regards the ability to attract investments for infrastructure projects. An exception in this field is China, which has allocated 46 billion dollars for the construction of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (Cecp). The… Read More »

Pakistan Economic History

With the division of the Anglo-Indian empire, 20% of the population fell into Pakistan, just 10% of the industrial establishments and minimal shares of mineral resources and transport infrastructures. The prospects for agriculture were more favorable, given that Pakistan had inherited most of the irrigation systems; these, however, depended on the Indus waters, in turn… Read More »

Pakistan During 1978-1993 Part III

In January 1993 B. Bhutto assumed the post of secretary of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, and shortly thereafter her husband was released from prison. Meanwhile, the historical conflicts between the two roles undermined relations between President Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Sharif Khan, producing deployments and resignations in the group of ministers that… Read More »

Pakistan During 1978-1993 Part II

On December 1, 1988, B. Bhutto was appointed prime minister and the state of emergency was lifted. With the support of the PPP and IDA, Ishaq Khan was appointed president. B. Bhutto immediately announced the implementation of democratic reforms, and strove, without however obtaining the required qualified majority, to repeal the amendments to the Constitution… Read More »

Pakistan During 1978-1993 Part I

In the decade 1978-1988 there were no substantial changes in political life (led continuously by Gen. Zia-ul-Haq), also due to the poor cohesion capacity of the opposition. In August 1983, Zia announced provincial and national elections for 1985, without however succeeding in appeasing the dissent of the MRD (Movement for the Restoration of Democracy), founded… Read More »

Pakistan Dictionary of History

Pakistan. A South Asian state, which arose in 1947 from the dissolution of British rule in the Indian subcontinent. The reasons that led to its birth have ancient roots. Before the British conquest in the 19th century, India had long been dominated by powerful Muslim dynasties (➔ Mughal, empire) who had consolidated a strong Islamic… Read More »

Pakistan Demographics 1994

About 40% of the territory consists of the plain drained by the Indus and its tributaries; this plain is closed by mountains both to the north and to the west, and by a plateau to the south-west, the Balūčistān. The northern mountain barrier is part of the complex system of the Himalayan range; the relevance… Read More »

Pakistan Children’s Encyclopedia

Pakistan The Islamic component of the Indian subcontinent Among the most populous countries in the world, with a number of problems that slow down its development, Pakistan has very modern and very advanced aspects alongside others that are completely opposite: the distance between incompatible models of life – such as those of shepherds or peasants.… Read More »

Pakistan Architecture and Cinema

Architecture. – Following the creation of the Islamic state of Pakistan (1947), many projects were put in place to ensure that Karāchī passed from the role of regional capital to that of capital of the new republic. Despite this, when Ayub Khan took power (1958), the idea of ​​a new and more beautiful Karāchī was… Read More »

Pakistan Archeology Part III

The plan also responds to those principles of regularity typical of the urban planning of the Hellenic world. This plant remains as a constant trellis through the subsequent remakes of the Indo-Parta and kuṣāṇa age. Of the kuṣāṇa period it is properly the third city which is known by the name of the modern locality… Read More »

Pakistan Archeology Part II

Among the finds, apart from the interest in the urban layout and in the organizations that testify to a high standard of living, the ceramics, seals and sculptures are particularly significant. The bright red ceramic features a black decoration of textile inspiration, with stylized and modified naturalistic motifs, outside of rigid geometric recurrences. The seals… Read More »

Pakistan Archeology Part I

After the division between India and Pakistan, the latter are left with the vast and complex series of archaeological documents of the Indian subcontinent, especially those referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric age and to that which elapses between the expansion of the Indian kingdoms and the end of the kuṣāṇa empire in which the… Read More »

Pakistan Archeology

The most ancient events relating to human settlement have been illustrated by the findings of Paleolithic materials in the Soan and Jhelum valleys, in the northern part of Pakistan, which seem to date back to at least 400,000 years ago. But it was the French excavations at the Mehrgarh site, in Balūčistān, that provided the… Read More »

Pakistan 1949

PAKISTAN. – Muslim state of India, whose constitution, in relation to the Indian Independance Act of July 18, 1947, dates from August 15, 1947; it is part of the British Commonwealth as a domain. The proposal to give this name to the Muslim state to be founded in India was born in 1933 among Indian… Read More »

Pakistan – The Return of Benazir Bhutto

Added to this is the threat posed by future political elections. In this way, with the favor of the United States and Great Britain, who want to continue to ‘give Musharraf a chance’ while securing a new ally, the plan to identify Benazir Bhutto as future premier is taking shape. Bhutto has everything to please… Read More »