Category Archives: Africa

The African continent extends over two climatic zones: the tropics near the equator and the subtropics beyond the tropics. Due to the relatively high position of the sun all year round and the associated high energy supply, no real thermal high winters develop in Africa. Even in the high areas of the mountains, the monthly average temperatures in winter do not fall below 0 ° C. In the lowlands, temperatures are even between around 10 ° C beyond the tropics and over 25 ° C at the equator.

The temperature distribution in Africa is essentially determined by three factors – solar radiation, cloud cover and evaporationwhich in turn depends, among other things, on the amount of precipitation. Theoretically, the equatorial latitudes experience the greatest energy input, since the position of the sun is very high all year round. Due to the heavy cloud cover associated with the confluence zone of the trade winds in the area of ​​the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), however, part of this incident radiation is reflected, which reduces the warming of the earth’s surface. The high equatorial precipitation also leads to heavy evaporation. As a result of the energy required for this, a further part of the radiation energy is converted into latent and non-sensible heat. For these reasons, the highest temperatures in Africa do not occur near the equator, but in the tropics. The subtropical high pressure belt leads to the dissolution of clouds and the formation of extremely dry areas through descending air movements. This results in largely unhindered solar radiation, which in summer causes strong warming due to the zenith of the sun. The low moisture content of the soil and the largely missing vegetation, which in equatorial latitudes contributes significantly to evaporation due to its transpiration, result in low evaporation rates. As a result, most of the incident solar energy can be converted into sensible heat; the temperatures in the interior of the Sahara sometimes rise to over 50 ° C during the day. In contrast, the radiation is correspondingly high at night and in winter; this leads to a strong cooling and extreme temperature contrasts.

See Notes on Card 148.4.

The year-round, relatively uniform supply of radiation leads to the development of a typical tropical time-of-day climate near the equator. The seasonal temperature differences are significantly smaller than those between day and night. For this reason, the temperatures in tropical Africa fluctuate by no more than one temperature level between January and July. With increasing distance from the equator, the seasonal radiation and thus also temperature differences increase. This becomes particularly clear beyond the tropics. The monthly average temperatures there sometimes fluctuate by up to 20 ° C.

The highest point in Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania at 5895 meters high. The lowest point is Lake Asal in Djibouti at 153 meters below sea level. There are 54 internationally recognized countries in Africa. Victoria is the largest lake in Africa. The world’s longest river — the Nile — and the world’s largest desert — the Sahara — both are home in Africa. The world’s hottest place — Ethiopia — is in Africa. Tugela Falls is the second highest waterfall in the world lies in Africa. The San people are the oldest tribe in Africa, and the direct descendants of the first Homo sapiens. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 54 countries in Africa. For the complete list of nations in Africa, please visit

Burundi Travel Facts

Burundi is one of the smallest countries in Africa and one of the poorest countries in the world. It borders with Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda. In terms of landscape, the national parks and Lake Tanganyika are particularly interesting. Capital City Gitega Size 27,834 km² Resident 11,100,000 Official Language Kirundi, French… Read More »

Burkina Faso Travel Facts

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world. It borders Mali to the east, Ivory Coast to the south and Niger, Benin, Togo and Ghana to the west. It is particularly interesting because of its cultural diversity. Capital City Ouagadougou Size 267,950 km²… Read More »

Botswana Travel Facts

Botswana is a landlocked country in southern Africa, bordering South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. The country impresses with diverse nature, beautiful landscapes and its great biodiversity. It is one of the most sparsely populated countries on earth. Capital City Gaborone Size 581,730 km² Resident 2,025,000 Official Language Setswana, English Currency Pula Time Zone UTC+2… Read More »

Benin Travel Facts

Benin is in West Africa. It is considered a developing country and borders Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea. Benin is one of the poorest countries in the world. It is not considered a safe travel destination. Capital City Porto-Novo Size 111.622 km² Resident 10.598.500 Official Language French Currency CFA-Franc Time… Read More »

Angola Travel Facts

After the end of a 25-year civil war, Angola is slowly being rebuilt and increasingly being rediscovered as a tourist destination. The fantastic, original nature of Africa, the many wild animals, varied landscapes and the fact that the country has not yet been discovered by mass tourism make Angola (still) a real insider tip. Capital… Read More »

Algeria Travel Facts

Algeria is located in northern Africa and is one of the two largest countries on this continent. The main part of the population lives in the north of the country near the coast. The south, on the other hand, which is mainly shaped by the Sahara, is only sparsely populated. Capital City Algiers Size 2.381.741… Read More »

Somalia Rivers and Lakes

These climatic conditions, together with the calcareous or chalky karst nature of the prevailing rocks and the tabular form of the relief, determine the regime of the watercourses; it is for these reasons that all the watercourses of the northern part of the peninsula – both the marginal ones of the narrow slope of the… Read More »

Somalia Prehistory and History

ANTHROPOLOGY From an ethnic point of view, apart from small minorities of Arabs, Bantu and others, the majority of the population is made up of Somalis (92%), a Cushitic-speaking ethnic group living in Somalia, in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and of Djibouti. In the 10th century. the Somalis converted to Islam calling themselves Sunnis.… Read More »

Somalia Independence and Civil War

Independence was proclaimed on 1 July 1960 and on the same day the union with the former Somaliland, independent from 26 June, was approved. The governments placed at the center of their action the territorial claims against Ethiopia and Kenya, which resulted in an open conflict with the former, temporarily interrupted by the mediation of… Read More »

Somalia in the 1950’s Part III

The formation of the executive classes of the Somalia, in the European sense. it was obtained with local education, up to the medium grade, and with sending abroad, especially to Italy, for higher-level studies and specialized technical training. In 1954, the Higher Institute of Law, Economics and social (then, in 1956, Higher Institute of Law… Read More »

Somalia in the 1950’s Part II

In 1956 the first general political elections took place, with a direct and indirect system (this for the nomadic populations) but still limited to male voters, for the appointment of the Somali members of the first Legislative Assembly composed of 70 members (60 Somalis, 10 representing the other non-Somali ethnic communities, designated by the administrative… Read More »

Somalia in the 1950’s Part I

On 21 December 1949 the UN General Assembly entrusted Italy, in “fiduciary” administration, with its former colony for a period of ten years (starting from 2 December 1950) on the condition that the political and administrative structures were prepared and the necessary cultural training of the residents was provided so that the territory could become… Read More »

Somalia Foreign Relations

Relations with the Arabian Peninsula. – From the Arabian Peninsula, groups of emigrants have arrived in Somalia at all times, who have settled along the coast where they arrived and arrive, along the navigation line that the natural conditions of monsoons and ocean currents create from the Persian Gulf to Zanzibar. It is probable that,… Read More »

Somalia Flora

The distribution of vegetation is related to the conditions of the climate and water, both surface and underground. In general, the climate of Somalia is not such as to allow the life of plants, which are not specially adapted to concentrate their functions of nutrition and reproduction in the short period of the rainy season,… Read More »

Somalia Exploration Part II

At Uarandab Robecchi met Prince Don Eugenio Ruspoli, who with two companions, Keller and E. Dal Seno, was heading from Berbera to Barri sull’Uebi: after having climbed it for a while, however, he was forced to return to Berbera. The following year the first expedition of Captain Bòttego left from Berbera, which also included Captain… Read More »

Somalia Exploration Part I

Somalia’s maritime exploration on the Indian Ocean began with Vasco da Gama’s voyage. Both Vasco and later Tristam da Cunha and Pedralvarez Cabral sailed along the present Italian Somalia. Vasco da Gama, on his return voyage, in 1499 had some artillery volleys fired against Mogadishu; in 1507 Tristam da Cunha bombed Mogadishu; in 1517 Lopo… Read More »

Somalia Ethnography

The residents of the Somali peninsula can be traced back to four main groups: Somalis, Galla, Negri and pariahs of uncertain origin. Along the coast there are Arab groups or groups of other Asian origins. Somalis are divided into five main groups: Isāq, Darod and Dir in northern Somalia; in southern Somalia Hauia (Hawiyya) and… Read More »

Somalia Encyclopedia Online

Somalia, State Democratic Republic of East Africa, located in the northeastern section of the Horn of Africa. It faces the Gulf of Aden to the N, the Indian Ocean to the E; it borders to the NW with Djibouti, to the West with Ethiopia, to the South and SW with Kenya. Physical characteristics The geological… Read More »

Somalia 2015

Demography and economic geography. – East African state. For Somalia, the socio-economic estimates have little reliability, due to the extremely difficult internal situation. The calculation of population growth is made highly problematic by constant internal conflicts, displacements due to famine and widespread nomadism; there are an estimated one million refugees. Having made these clarifications, according… Read More »

Somalia 2013

The beginning of the new century found, in many ways, the terms of the Somali crisis unchanged around the main issues that had emerged with the substantial dissolution of the state following the 1991 fall of Muḥammad Siyād Barrī: the accentuation of the often bloody clashes between family clans and the proliferation of armed groups,… Read More »

Somalia 2007

HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY East African state. The statistical data relating to the demographic consistency are uncertain, and vary from 10.3 million (United Nations, 2004) to 6.8 million residents. according to the Somalia Watching Brief , a tool used by the World Bank to monitor the socio-economic evolution of countries in conflict or post-conflict situations.… Read More »

Somalia 2000

HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Population The most recent estimate (1998) attributes to a population of Somalia 9. 237. 000 residents (average density 14 residents per km ²). The intensification of hostilities in the south of the country starting from April 1992 and the disastrous effects of the drought that hit the Somalia in that same… Read More »

Somalia 1995

Population. – The most recent international estimates attribute to Somalia a population of about 9.2 million residents, corresponding to an average density of 14.4 residents / km 2. Massive waves of population transfers have made calculations difficult. Since the mid-1970s, recurrent dry seasons have mainly affected the northern regions, inducing many Somalis to seek better… Read More »

Somalia 1981

Population. – In the statistics concerning the population of the Somalia there is a significant gap between calculations, for example, local interiors, which make the residents rise to about 5 million, and the presumptive estimates carried out by international organizations. The FAO yearbook for 1973 reports the following data: total residents, as of 1972-73, 3,003,000;… Read More »

Somalia 1949

After the Italian action in Ethiopia, Somalia was formed into one of the governments (see App. I, p. 62) of Italian East Africa (702,000 sq. Km., About 1,200,000 residents). This government included the ancient colony (506.573 sq. Km. Including the 90.000 sq. Km. Of Oltre Giuba, with 1.021.572 residents calculated in 1931) and also the… Read More »

Somalia – The Independent Somali Republic

The territory of the Republic, created on 1 July 1960, is administratively divided into eight regions, six in the ex-Somalia and two (West Region and Eastern Region) in ex-Somaliland. The institution of the new state is established in the Act of Union (formally approved by the National Assembly on January 18, 1961 and promulgated by… Read More »

Italian Somalia Transportation

The maritime communications of the colony with Italy are ensured by a shipping company, with regular services. No point of the very long coast has inlets suitable for easy landing, and especially during the summer monsoon the open bays of the ocean coast are often inaccessible: a cliff sometimes at the surface of the water,… Read More »

Italian Somalia Territory

Italian Somalia is a government (from 1 June 1936 it is officially called the Government of Somalia) of Italian East Africa, formerly an autonomous colony located in the eastern part of the Somali Peninsula on the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, and limited by British Somalia, by governments of Harar and the Galla… Read More »

Italian Somalia Population

The population of Italian Somalia amounted in 1931 to 1,021,572 residents, Of which 1658 Europeans, and almost all of them Italians. The larger government of Somalia is believed to have a population of 1,300,000. The indigenous people are overwhelmingly Somali; there are also a number of Arabs and a few large Indian traders. The language… Read More »

Italian Somalia Economic Conditions

Italian Somalia has not yet revealed mineral deposits; some small natural salt flats in the interior, such as those of Aggherràr near Lugh, provide very impure salt, which is also transported and sold on the markets. Large salt pans, called Dante, were planted by the Migiurtinia Society in the Hordío Lagoon near Hafun. The Somali… Read More »