Category Archives: Africa

The African continent extends over two climatic zones: the tropics near the equator and the subtropics beyond the tropics. Due to the relatively high position of the sun all year round and the associated high energy supply, no real thermal high winters develop in Africa. Even in the high areas of the mountains, the monthly average temperatures in winter do not fall below 0 ° C. In the lowlands, temperatures are even between around 10 ° C beyond the tropics and over 25 ° C at the equator.

CAUSES OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
The temperature distribution in Africa is essentially determined by three factors – solar radiation, cloud cover and evaporationwhich in turn depends, among other things, on the amount of precipitation. Theoretically, the equatorial latitudes experience the greatest energy input, since the position of the sun is very high all year round. Due to the heavy cloud cover associated with the confluence zone of the trade winds in the area of ​​the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), however, part of this incident radiation is reflected, which reduces the warming of the earth’s surface. The high equatorial precipitation also leads to heavy evaporation. As a result of the energy required for this, a further part of the radiation energy is converted into latent and non-sensible heat. For these reasons, the highest temperatures in Africa do not occur near the equator, but in the tropics. The subtropical high pressure belt leads to the dissolution of clouds and the formation of extremely dry areas through descending air movements. This results in largely unhindered solar radiation, which in summer causes strong warming due to the zenith of the sun. The low moisture content of the soil and the largely missing vegetation, which in equatorial latitudes contributes significantly to evaporation due to its transpiration, result in low evaporation rates. As a result, most of the incident solar energy can be converted into sensible heat; the temperatures in the interior of the Sahara sometimes rise to over 50 ° C during the day. In contrast, the radiation is correspondingly high at night and in winter; this leads to a strong cooling and extreme temperature contrasts.

PREVAILING WINDS
See Notes on Card 148.4.

DAILY AND YEARLY FLUCTUATIONS
The year-round, relatively uniform supply of radiation leads to the development of a typical tropical time-of-day climate near the equator. The seasonal temperature differences are significantly smaller than those between day and night. For this reason, the temperatures in tropical Africa fluctuate by no more than one temperature level between January and July. With increasing distance from the equator, the seasonal radiation and thus also temperature differences increase. This becomes particularly clear beyond the tropics. The monthly average temperatures there sometimes fluctuate by up to 20 ° C.

The highest point in Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania at 5895 meters high. The lowest point is Lake Asal in Djibouti at 153 meters below sea level. There are 54 internationally recognized countries in Africa. Victoria is the largest lake in Africa. The world’s longest river — the Nile — and the world’s largest desert — the Sahara — both are home in Africa. The world’s hottest place — Ethiopia — is in Africa. Tugela Falls is the second highest waterfall in the world lies in Africa. The San people are the oldest tribe in Africa, and the direct descendants of the first Homo sapiens. According to COUNTRYAAH, there are 54 countries in Africa.

Conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan Part 7

Hundreds of thousands killed In 2010, Milli Minnawi broke with the government and terminated the peace agreement from 2006. Instead, the government signed an agreement with LJM in 2011. In the same year, JEM, SLM-Nur and SLM-Minnawi merged with the SPLM-North rebel movement, a “branch” of the South Sudanese independence movement. Together they formed the… Read More »

Conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan Part 6

Open war breaks out The conflict continued unabated, albeit at a low level, until 2003, when it took the form of open warfare between African guerrillas and government-backed Arab militias. Death toll rose dramatically and the Darfur conflict struck the world with horror. Initially, the government’s policy was to rule by dividing. Khartoum incited Arabs… Read More »

Conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan Part 4

Controversial border area The Abyei border area is particularly controversial, as it has rich oil wells and valuable pasture. The conflict over Abyei was jeopardizing South Sudan’s independence at the last minute, but the parties managed to agree that a peacekeeping force of 4,200 Ethiopian troops would be stationed in the area and that negotiations… Read More »

Conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan Part 2

Islamist dictatorship Sudan’s current president, Omar Hassan al-Bashir, came to power through a military coup in 1989. However, the real ruler of the first decade after the coup was Islamist Hassan al-Turabi, who led the government’s support party, with roots in the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. Sudan now became one of the world’s toughest dictatorships.… Read More »

Conflicts in Syria Part IV

Humanitarian disaster Reports of large flows of refugees came as early as 2011. They have increased dramatically since then. In mid-2016, an estimated 6.5 million Syrians were displaced within the country and almost 5 million in other countries. Of those who leave Syria, most end up in neighboring countries, especially in Turkey and Lebanon. About… Read More »

Conflicts in Syria Part III

Brutal strife Both the government and the rebels have committed a lot of violence and brutality. How many have died is difficult to say because it is impossible to obtain reliable information. But in August 2014, the UN reported that more than 191,000 people had died since the war broke out. The Syrian Observatory for… Read More »

Conflicts in Syria Part II

The entry of Bashar al-Assad In 2000, Hafez al-Assad died of a heart attack, and his son Bashar al-Assad took over as president of Syria. He began his first term in a more open political spirit and there was talk of both political and economic reforms. Political prisoners were released from prisons, media censorship was… Read More »

Conflicts in Syria Part I

Syria has long been dominated by the socialist Ba’ath party and the powerful Assad family. Hafez al-Assad seized power in a coup in 1970 and gathered all the power around himself. When he died in 2000, his son, the current president Bashar al-Assad, took over. The country has been ruled tightly, and media censorship, corruption,… Read More »

Conflicts in Uganda Part IV

Regional hunt for Kony However, the armed struggle against the LRA was not over. In fact, a number of Ugandan soldiers remained in the Congo, continuing to search for the scattered rebels. Many were also sent to southern Sudan and CAR, when groups of LRA rebels in 2009 went both east and north. However, fighting… Read More »

Conflicts in Uganda Part III

LRA’s goals After emerging during the chaotic late 1980’s, the LRA continued its struggle for decades to come. Over the years, the LRA has stated a number of different reasons for its armed struggle. Originally, they pointed to the government army’s violations of human rights in Acholi as one of the main reasons. They have… Read More »

Conflicts in Uganda Part II

1990’s: new rebel groups The 1990’s were marked by the emergence of new rebel groups. The armed struggle against Museveni’s regime began in northern Uganda, but rebel groups also emerged in the northeastern region of Teso. The northwestern region of West Nile Bank was relatively quiet until the mid-1990’s, when the West Nile Bank Front… Read More »

Conflicts in Uganda Part I

Uganda’s history has been marred by armed conflict. Even after the current president Yoweri Museveni took power in 1986, new rebel groups continued to emerge and take up the fight against the government. The main survivors today are the Alliance of Democratic Forces (ADF) and the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), both of which have become… Read More »

Western Sahara Part 3

New mediators Baker’s successor as UN envoy, the Dutchman Peter van Walsum, announced in 2008 that he considered Polisario’s goal of an independent Western Sahara to be no longer “realistic”. To break the deadlock, van Walsum therefore called on the Security Council to propose another way forward, that is, to allow him to explore some… Read More »

Western Sahara Part 2

Disagreement over voting power The Polisario only accepted in principle that people who had demonstrably lived in Western Sahara before the invasion and their descendants would be allowed to vote, based on a Spanish census from 1974. Morocco also demanded participation for the Moroccans who moved into the area after 1975 and during the ceasefire,… Read More »

Western Sahara Part 1

Western Sahara is at the center of one of the world’s most protracted conflicts. Most of the former Spanish Sahara colony is occupied by Morocco, while the Western Saharan liberation movement Polisario has declared the area an independent state. The UN has long sought to hold a referendum on the future status of the territory.… Read More »

Morocco Topography

Morocco sees itself as a bridge between Europe and Africa. Due to its geostrategic location and its reform policy, Morocco is an important partner country of the EU and Germany. Important fields of action of German-Moroccan cooperation are renewable energies, water, sustainable economic development, environment and governance, as well as migration policy. Society Morocco is… Read More »

Morocco Everyday Life

Currency: Moroccan dirham Exchange rate: MAD 10.73 per euro (December 2020) Time zone: UTC (current time in winter GMT + 1) Country code (Tel.): +212 Climate (Rabat): Damp and hot in summer, damp and cool in winter Holidays and celebrations According to physicscat, weekends in Morocco are Saturday and Sunday. Many modern shops are closed… Read More »

Morocco Health and Security

If you live in Rabat, you can use the Rabataccueil portal to find out more before you leave the country. The portal is in French, but appeals to an international, diverse user audience. The supply of food and all everyday necessities is very good in Morocco. Most locals buy groceries, small household items, textiles, shoes… Read More »

Living in Morocco

Where to live In Rabat, foreigners like to move to the following areas: Hassan, Les Orangers, Agdal, Souissi, Hay Riad. In Casablanca, Maarif, CIL, Oasis, Beausejour, Ain Diab and Anfa are preferred residential areas. The choice of where you live depends on many factors, including the time required. Due to the increasing amount of car… Read More »

Travel to Morocco

Entry and residence COVID-19 (Corona Virus) Foreign nationals can currently only enter Morocco in exceptional cases. The Federal Foreign Office provides up-to- date information. Visa requirements German citizens need a passport for entry, which must be valid for at least six months. The identity card is not enough. The visa does not have to be… Read More »

Morocco Migration

Migration and flight Morocco, from emigration to transit and immigration country Morocco is a country of emigration, transit and immigration at the same time. Since independence in 1956, the state has focused politically primarily on the issue of emigration. Hundreds of thousands of Moroccans have gone to Europe to work since the 1960’s. Some of… Read More »

Morocco Culture and Arts

Diverse cultural heritage, dynamic young scene Thanks to European, Berber, African and Arab influences, Morocco’s culture is very diverse. Moroccan artists from the fields of music, theater, literature, poetry, painting and film are sometimes very successful internationally. King Mohammed VI is an important sponsor, especially of the fine arts. The royal family also supports various… Read More »

Morocco Population

Alphabetized adults: Over 18 years: Approx. 70% (with 80% / 60%, UNESCO) Major religions: Islam (99%) Christianity (<0.1) Judaism Urban population: Approx. 65% Life expectancy (female / male): 77.2 / 74.6 years Gender Inequality Index (UNDP): Rank 118 of 162 (2018) Number of births: 2.5 / woman Child mortality (under five years old): 21.3 /… Read More »

Morocco Education System

The Moroccan school system The Ministry of Education, Training, Research and Universities (ENSSUP) is politically responsible for schools and universities. The Moroccan government formulated the educational policy goals in the strategic plan 2015-2030. The key points of the plan are early childhood education, basic education, a quality offensive at all levels and close cooperation between… Read More »