The political landscape of Canada opens in the 1960s under the sign of the serious economic crisis characterized by unemployment, balance of payments deficit and industrial recession: the country must also address the issue of civil rights and the problematic economic consequences deriving from the windy British accession to the EEC, making London an important trading partner of Ottawa. But as early as 1961 the increase in the national product resumes and exports intensify, if unemployment and financial difficulties remain at the center of the Canadian parliamentary debate. For Canada political system, please check politicsezine.com.
The federal elections of June 1962 still put Diefenbaker’s progressive conservatives in power, and Pearson’s liberals in opposition. Domestic political conflicts add to the dangerous pressure on the Canadian dollar and the adoption of the floating exchange rate and other emergency economic measures. In 1963 the political situation seems to unblock with the electoral defeat of Diefenbaker and the appointment of Pearson as prime minister, while the controversy develops over the interference of the United States on the nuclear issue in Canadian politics and while GNP, capital investments and the deficit of the balance of payments. Another serious problem, destined for later developments, is the separatism of French-speaking Quebec: the activity of separatists, growing development grants from the Ottawa government, rising economic expansion with exports characterized Canada in the mid-1960s. The heated internal political conflicts, scandals and other controversies bring Diefenbaker’s conservatives back to power. The governmental activity of the liberals also concentrated in 1965 on social legislation, banking policy, the reorganization of the electoral districts and the growing criticism of the American intervention in Vietnam. There The governmental activity of the Liberals also concentrated in 1965 on social legislation, banking policy, the reorganization of electoral districts and the growing criticism of the American intervention in Vietnam. There The governmental activity of the Liberals also concentrated in 1965 on social legislation, banking policy, the reorganization of electoral districts and the growing criticism of the American intervention in Vietnam. ThereConservative leadership is not exempt from controversy and difficulties: social policy continues, the reform of the tax system and the integration of the armed forces that Canada is the first to apply within NATO. The 1967 World Exposition in Montreal, coinciding with the centenary of the Canadian Confederation, sees the influx of more than 70 nations; consumption and exports are increasing, even if inflation gives some concern.
The incident caused by de Gaulle’s visit has since 1967 relaunched the problem of Quebec separatism. The advent of Pierre Trudeau in 1968 and the success of the Liberal Party gave impetus to the legislative and administrative reform of the country, a new policy towards both Quebec and all linguistic minorities, and a reconsideration of Canadian foreign policy (recognition of the People’s China), leading Ottawa to a constructive contribution to the needs of underdevelopment and a dynamic diplomatic presence in South America and Equatorial Africa. As capital inflows from the USA revalue the Canadian dollar and American tariffs from 1971 hit the trade balance, inflation, rising prices and unemployment are also faced; terrorism in Quebec, despite the different French attitude, it becomes a serious problem that Trudeau tries to solve with a series of autonomist measures. In addition to economic problems, the early 1970s were characterized by a diversification of foreign policy and by a difficult relationship with the USA: the same role in NATO was reviewed. The Trudeau government faces many difficulties from the conservative opposition: the parliamentary elections of 1972 and 1974 are important and decisive tests and manage to give Trudeau the majority he needs to carry out his reform policy; inflation and unemployment must also be tackled, but production and exports continue to increase. Canadian policy is thus characterized by the regularization of foreign investments, by a fairer fiscal policy and by an independent conduct in the field of petroleum energy, especially towards the USA: for example, oil directed to the neighboring state is quoted and taxed, while trade with other nations is accentuated and important new economic development plans are launched.