Vegetation Flora. – A huge forest, consisting mainly of conifers, sporadically interspersed with swamps and lakes, bounded to the north by the tundra, to the south by the first offshoots of the prairie and the temperate broad-leaved forest, uniformly covers Canada, which deserves the name that it is commonly attributed to it as the land of timber. The dominant tree species, particularly in the Mackenzie district, is the Picea alba (VVhite Spruce), which reaches the limit of the tree vegetation at 68 ° 55 ′ north latitude; it also extends to the district of Alaska, while characteristic of the Atlantic side is the reappearance of the genus Larix, Represented, in Canada, by a local species (L. American) diffused mainly on marshy ground. To the east of Hudson Bay, and precisely around the Labrador, the Picea alba it goes thinning and is replaced by P. nigra (Black Spruce), a lover like the larch of wet soils. Finally, a subordinate importance is presented by the Pinus Banksiana, which, having entered Canada from the southern border, stops a few degrees before reaching the limit of the arboreal vegetation; and, in the southern portion of the district, also the Thuia occidentalis.
The arboreal dicotyledons, although assuming a subordinate importance, are not naturally absent. The secondary forests consist area of destroyed forests, they are especially formed by Populus balsamifera, P. canadensis, Betula papirifera, and the floods covered by Alnus incana, Betula occidentalis, Eleagnus argentea, varî Salix, Ribes petraeum. As for the grasslands and marshes, they house, in addition to several very common species, some of which are widespread throughout the cold portion of the northern hemisphere, such as Betula nana, Rubus chamaemorus, Lonicera coerulea, Kalmia glauca, some typically American species such as Zygadenum elegans, Douglasia arctica, Arnica Chamissonis.
The Canadian tundra differs from the Siberian tundra for the dominance assumed by the Lichens, forming a continuous coating on the soil (Cetraria, Platysma, several Cornicularia etc.) scattered with several species of small ericaceae (Rhododendron, Ledum, Kalmia, Arctostaphylos, Cassiope, Vaccinium) and numerous Carex, which also cover large patches of land by themselves. Only on the hilly slopes do weeds develop, very showy especially if in bloom; the banks of the watercourses are marked, particularly near the mouth, by stains of Salix-speciosa.
The vegetation in the Great Lakes region assumes a particularly varied character due to the interference of species areas belonging to various contiguous districts. Characteristic tree species include Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis, Ulmus americana (White Elm); the forest flora is overall much richer than the European one, due to the much less destruction of the Pliocene forest vegetation during the Quaternary. The arrangement of the mountain ranges in the direction of the meridians, rather than that of the parallels as in Europe, has in fact allowed the North American forest species to find, during the advance of the glacial fronts, extensive southern territories of refuge, from which they could then easily re-spread. towards the north, after the conclusion of the Quaternary climatic crises. Macoun has in fact registered in the forest of southern Canada no less than 14 species of Conifers and numerous Cupulifers, among which 8 Quercus, 1 Castanea, 1 Fagus ; Amentaceae, with 6 Betula, 2 Alnus, 2 Corylus, 1 Carpinus, 1 Ostrya ; Salicinee, with 14 Salix, 5 Populus ; Juglandee, with 4 Carya, 2 Juglans, in addition to Platanus occidentalis. For Canada geography, please check franciscogardening.com.
Fauna. – Canadian fauna is certainly one of the poorest: only 75 families of terrestrial vertebrates are represented, of which 20 are mammals, 44 are birds, 3 are reptiles and 8 are amphibians. None of these families are exclusive to the region. Several of the more notable species have a close affinity with forms of northern Eurasia. Thus the Wapiti or Canadian deer (Cervus canadensis) is akin to the Amur deer; reindeer (Rangifer tarandus hastalis) is linked to the Rangifer tarandus Europe and Asia and the northern R. caribou of eastern Canada is akin to him; the moose (Alces machlis original) is a subspecies to whose side stands the Northern European elk; the American bison is a congener of the European ones; the big horned sheep (Ovis canadensis) closely resembles the snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) of Siberia; the American marten (Mustela americana) is very similar to ours; the Gulo luscus, the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the polar fox (Vulpes lagopus) live in all arctic circumpolar regions. Characteristic and typical of the northernmost area of Canada and Greenland is the musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) at other times also widespread in northern Siberia. Still in Canada, although less characteristic, are the rock goat (Haploceros montanus), a beaver (Castor fiber canadensis), the American flying squirrel (Sciuropterus volucella), the American jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonianus), the ondatra (Fiber zibethicus), a kind of mouse (Thonomys talpoides), an arboreal porcupine (Erethizon dorsatus), two hares from white fur during winter (Lepus campestris and L. americanus), a lynx (Felis canadensis), fox american (Vulpes velox), an otter (Lutra canadensis), grizzly (Ursus horribilis) and raccoon (Procyon lotor). As far as birds are concerned, the limits of the Canadian region are less clear-cut than for mammals and there are few that do not go more or less noticeably south. Among the most representative elements of the northernmost area of Canada we can mention the Picoides americanus, the Regulus satrapa, the Clark’s crow (Picicorvuè columbianus), the Coccothraustes vespertinus, a particular blackbird (Myadestes Townsendii); among those of the southern zone the Sitta canadensis, Centrocercus urophasianus, Parisoreus canadensis, Zonotrichia albicollis, Dendroica Auduboni, etc. Reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish offer little variety and are not very characteristic.