Agriculture and livestock. – The latest agricultural statistics give a cultivated area of 22-23 million hectares equal to 2.5% of the total area, excluding water. The largest areas are devoted to wheat, the cultivated area of which rises from 40,246 sq km. in the period 1909-1913, to 96,820 in 1926-1930, to 103,137 in the years 1931-1935. Production rose from 53.6 million quintals to 118.6 in 1926-30 to drop to 83.2% in recent years. There is therefore a constant decrease in relative production, which from 13.3 quintals per hectare in 1909-1913 decreases to 12.2 in the years 1926-1930 and 8.3 in the period 1931-1936. Canadian grain farming therefore accentuates its extensive character, concentrated as it is in the prairie provinces, with a very limited population density.
The livestock stock was strong in 1935 of 3,849,200 dairy cattle, 4,971,400 other cattle, 3,421,100 sheep, 3,654,000 pigs, 2,933,492 horses (1934).
Minerals and industries. – Canada accentuates its pre-eminent position in the mining field, especially as regards gold, whose production is constantly increasing: from 58,000 kg. in 1927 it rose to 102 thousand in 1935 (the value rises from 38.3 million dollars to 68), so Canada is currently only surpassed by the South African Union (335,110 kg. in 1935), by the Soviet Union (140-180.000 kg.), Slightly exceeding the United States (100.683 kg. In 1935), far ahead of the other large countries such as Southern Rhodesia and Australia. For nickel, the dominion maintains its absolute dominance, increasing production from 30,300 tons. in 1927 to 77,000 in 1936, out of a world total of 36,000 and 90,000 tons respectively. Even for copper, although it does not have such an overwhelming dominance, the situation is continuously improving: from 33,000 tons. of copper in 1927 rose to 175,000 in recent years (1935-1936), so today Canada occupies the third place in the world after the United States (379,000 tons in 1935) and Chile (259,000). Far less favorable conditions are offered by iron (steel production has seen, however, a clear recovery in recent years, rising from 345,000 tons in 1932 to 770,000 tons in 1934, to 957,000 tons in 1935), from coal, whose current production (9-10 million tons) is lower than that of 1927-1930 (12 million). The abundant water resources (7.54 million cav. Installed in 1935) provide for this deficiency, especially in the industries of the provinces of Quebec and Ontario.
Canadian industry continues to maintain its fundamental characteristics as a transformer, first of all, of the agricultural and forestry resources of the immense country. In 1934 the number of factories was 25,663 and that of workers 545,162 units. As for the number of factories, the industries related to the production of paper and woodworking prevail (8075), followed by those that process agricultural products (5656), livestock (4504); and the textile industries (2234). As for the number of workers, the paper and wood industries are almost on a par with the textile ones (116,691 and 115,695 respectively) followed at a great distance by the agricultural (77,644) and livestock (57,199) ones. The automotive industry remains very flourishing (17,000 workers; 162.
Commerce. – Canadian trade continues to maintain, although attenuated as an absolute value, the character that was clearly outlined after the World War, of the net prevalence of exports over imports: just over 500 million dollars for imports (average 1934-1936) ; 757 million to exports.
As for traffic, the main ports are those of Montreal, Halifax, St John and Vancouver: in the interior, Toronto is important.
Civil aviation (p. 645). – The airlines as of January 1, 1938 are represented by the following companies: 1. Canadian Airways Ltd., the most important of all, operates about thirty lines; 2. Canadian Colonial Airways Ltd.; 3. Dominion Skyways Ltd.; 4. M. and Canada Aviation Company Ltd.; 5. Mackenzie Air Services; 6. Mc Neal Air Service; 7. Murray Aeronautical Corporation Ltd.; 8. Northwest Airlines Ltd.; 9. Northern Airways Ltd.; 10. Northern Flight; 11. Skylines Express Ltd.; 12. Starratt Airways and Transportation Ltd.; 13. United Air Transport; 14. Wings Ltd. There are a total of 700 civil aircraft, of which 100 in regular service on civilian lines.
Ecclesiastical organization. – The dioceses of St. John of Quebec (1933), Saskatoon (1933), Nelson (1936) and the archdiocese of Moncton (1936) were created; elevated the Apostolic Prefecture of Hudson’s Bay to Vicariate (1931).
Army. – At the beginning of 1937 the “permanent active militia” was increased to 6960 between officers, non-commissioned officers and soldiers; while the “active non-permanent militia” was increased to 127,000 men. The permanent active militia includes: 3 infantry regiments, 2 cavalry regiments, 1 horse-drawn artillery brigade, 3 artillery batteries, 1 medium-caliber battery, 1 anti-aircraft battery, 1 signaling corps and services. For Canada military, please check militarynous.com.
The active non-permanent militia includes: 19 infantry brigades (59 rifle battalions, 26 machine gun battalions, 1 assault tank battalion), 5 cavalry brigades and autonomous regiments (in total 20 regiments), 2 motorized machine gun brigades, 27 brigades of field artillery, 6 medium caliber, 2 coast and 1 anti-aircraft, 40 companies and 1 engineering squadron, 1 signaling corps on 32 sections and 2 fortress companies.
Finance. – Despite the considerable increase in ordinary income, the deficit (covered by loans) caused by the excess of extraordinary expenses for public works, assistance to the unemployed and agricultural aid is still considerable.
As of March 31, 1937, the internal public debt was 2.7 billion (2.5 of which consolidated) and the external debt of 0.8.
In accordance with the proposals of the Macmillan Commission of Inquiry (1933) in June-July 1934 a central bank was created (in operation since 11 March 1935), to which the monopoly of the issuance is reserved – previously exercised jointly by the state and the chartered banks – and that it is obliged to hold a reserve in precious metals and currencies equal to 25% of the notes themselves and of the commitments on demand. The law also established the passage to the Bank of Canada of notes and state reserves, as well as the gradual withdrawal from circulation of the notes issued by the aforementioned commercial banks (currently 10). The latter were obliged to pay in their gold and hold a reserve of 5% of their sight commitments in the form of non-interest bearing deposits with the Bank or bank notes.
As of December 31, 1937, the notes in circulation, both of the Bank of Canada and of the Chartered banks (convertible only in the form of 400-ounce bars), totaled 207 million and the reserve of the government and the Bank was 109 over 15 million in uniforms.
The main banks are the Bank of Montreal (1817) and the Royal Bank of Canada (1869); also important are the B. of Nova Scotia (1832), the B. of Toronto (1855), the B. canadienne nationale (1873), the Imperial B. of Canada (1875).