State of North America. The population exceeded the symbolic threshold of 35 million residents in 2014 (35,524,732, according to an estimate by UNDESA, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ; they were 33,476,688 at the 2011 census) and continues to grow regularly thanks above all to the contribution of immigration, oriented towards the sectors that most require manpower, and mostly coming from Asian countries. Between 2006 and 2011 the demographic consistency increased by 5.9%: all the provinces recorded a positive result, in particular the province of Alberta recorded the highest growth rate (+ 10.8%). As in the major industrialized countries, the percentage of urban population is high: 80% of the residents (2013) live in cities, in the southern areas of the country, and as many as 26 centers exceed 100,000 people, with a territory that represents less than 1% of the total.
The other socio-demographic indicators show widespread well-being: infant mortality is very low (4.6 ‰ in 2013), while life expectancy at birth (79 years for men, 84 for women) is among the highest in the world . Education is open and free for all, including refugees and immigrants, at both primary and secondary levels. The pension system and family and unemployed support programs are administered directly by the federal government. Healthcare is free and aimed at everyone. In 2012, spending on health was equal to 10.9% of GDP, while in 2011 public spending on education was equal to 5.3% of GDP. In the ranking of the UN Human Development Index for 2013, Canada occupies the eighth place. per capita in dollars, at purchasing power parity (PPA); however, alongside these parameters, those on the quality of life are also taken into consideration. For Canada 2019, please check philosophynearby.com.
Economic conditions. – Affected by the 2008-09 global financial crisis, the Canadian economy abruptly entered recession and Ottawa recorded its first deficit after twelve years of surplus. However, the banking system was able to cope with the difficult situation thanks to its large capitalization and the traditional, as well as prudent, credit policy, and the recovery was not lacking, even if held back by the low increase in exports and domestic consumption, by a debt of the families (now at high levels) and unemployment that is difficult to reabsorb quickly. In 2014, growth was 2.3%, with a slightly higher result than in previous years, the inflation rate under control (about + 1%) and the Canadian dollar stable. According to the IMF (International Monetary Fund), the Canadian economy is destined to grow in the near future, thanks also to the American recovery, which will encourage exports.
In 2013 the primary sector took part in a minimal part in the formation of GDP (1.7%), by now absorbing only 2% of the workforce, while the secondary sector reached 28.4% (with 20% of the employed) and the remaining two third parties were due to an advanced service sector (banks, commerce, communications, tourism). Agriculture, supported by high mechanization, is very rich: high production of wheat (over 27 million tons in 2012), of which the
Canada is the sixth producer in the world, rapeseed (15.4 million t), corn (11.7 million t) and barley (8 million t). The traditionally developed fishing sector has undergone a progressive decline in recent years, as the natural reproductive capacities of the fish fauna have been exceeded.
The secondary sector continues to be a driving sector for the Canadian economy, thanks to iron ores (40 million t in 2013), the products of the steel industry (12.5 million t of steel), metallurgical (2.9 million tonnes of aluminum), automotive (956,200 units) and electronics, linked to the military, aerospace, transport and telecommunications sectors (Montreal hub). Moreover, Canada is the third largest producer of uranium in the world (22% of total reserves) and boasts important diamond deposits, so much so that the diamond production of Ottawa represents almost 10% of the entire world precious gem industry. The production of natural gas is high (154.8 billion m3 in 2013), of which Canada is the third largest producer in the world, after Russia and the United States. Oil extraction has increased in recent years, going from 140 million t in 2003 to 193 million t in 2013; at the moment, however, more than half of the production comes from tar sands (tight oil) of the province of Alberta, with the significant environmental problems that this entails. Today Canada ranks third oil reserve in the world, after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, and if it has problems exporting the oil produced due to the limited capacities of existing facilities, there is no shortage of projects. Indeed, the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline would allow Canadian oil to reach the Gulf of Mexico refineries in Texas, the Energy East pipeline would carry oil to the Canadian East refineries, to be exported to Europe, and a third pipeline is expected to bring oil to the coasts of British Columbia for export to Asia.
The country is a net exporter of energy, despite having one of the highest consumption in the world. Production is mainly entrusted to power plants that exploit the enormous hydroelectric potential, followed by thermal and nuclear ones and a small number of alternative power plants (solar and wind). There are 19 nuclear power plants, mostly located in Ontario, and their active reactors are based on self-developed technology sold abroad.
In the context of international trade, Canada plays a role of absolute pre-eminence: it is a major exporter of oil, timber, rough diamonds, uranium, high-tech products (13.4% of exports) and importer of means of transport. and their components, industrial machinery, chemicals, food, durable consumer goods. The United States is the main trading partner of Canada (with an exchange that reaches 75% of the Canadian total), followed by the European Union (EU) and China.
On October 18, 2013 Ottawa and Brussels signed the CETA (Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, an economic-trade agreement which aims to improve economic integration and facilitate investment flows between the two areas.