Canada Border and Explorations

By | December 25, 2021

The extreme limits reach the Arctic archipelago at N., which goes up to about 83 ° N. (71 ° 58 N., in Cape Murchison of the Boothia Felix Peninsula, if only the continental mass is considered), at S. l ‘Pointe Pelee island in Lake Erie (42 ° 8 ′ 47 ″), W 141 ° W, along which the Alaska border runs, and E. a point on the southern coast of Labrador in the Strait of Belle Isle (57 ° 10 ‘), where the new limits come to an end with the Terranova Dominion. In this way Canada occupies approximately 2/5 of the entire North American continent, that is, all of its northern part, excluding Alaska, which belongs to the United States, and Newfoundland with its Labradorian appendage. The land border runs S. in part along the 49 ° N. (between the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Lake of the Woods). For Canada 2017, please check mathgeneral.com.

The Dominion thus participates in the central position of the continent with respect to the two E.-O. of the Eurasian mass, towards which, compared to the United States, it has the advantage of a shorter distance (Glasgow is 2525 miles from Quebec, 2353 from Halifax, 2738 from Boston; from New York to Cadiz there are 3100, 3187 from New-York to Bordeaux; the Victoria-Yokohama route is 4200 miles, which become 4500 from Seattle, 4840 from Los Angeles): the expansion of the continent in longitude is matched, almost on the same parallels, by the extension, from both the extremities, of island protrusions (British and Japanese archipelagos) where they are centers of ancient population, in an evolved stage of civilization. To make the effects of this central position less effective, the fact is that a large part of Canada lies within the Arctic Circle (American-Arctic Archipelago), where climatic conditions are opposed to regular maritime exchanges between extreme eastern Asia and the western coasts of Europe; terrestrial communications are also hampered – and more they were in the past – both by the meridian arrangement of the relief and by the dense woodland covering and by the nature of the terrain which was determined in the last periods of its geological history.

Explorations. – Canada was the exclusive lordship of the few indigenous peoples until the end of the century. XV. The Normans, perhaps arrived in the century. XI to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Nova Scotia, they did not preserve or pass on any precise memory of their discoveries. Therefore, that of Giovanni Caboto (v.) Counts as a real discovery by Europeans, who landed on 24 June 1497, it seems, at Cape Breton, and then returned to continue the discovery in the following year with a navigation probably further south. Portuguese expeditions, led by the Cortereal brothers, explored the outer coast of Newfoundland and in part also that of Labrador in 1500 and 1501; Breton and English fishing ships immediately flocked, attracted by the fame of the extraordinary fishiness of those beaches, on the Newfoundland bank and on the coasts further south. But it does not seem possible to speak of a methodical and precise recognition of the new lands in these areas before the famous expedition of Giovanni da Verazzano, who in 1524 followed minutely with French ships the coast from Carolina to Acadia and Cape Breton calling the whole country New France; the following year Estévan Gómez followed the same route on behalf of Spain, especially exploring the Acadian coast and Cape Breton.

Further inward the expeditions of the French Jacques Cartier penetrated (and really marked the beginning of a large takeover), who in 1534, having entered the Strait of Belle Isle, sailed across the huge gulf still unknown, discovering the west coast of Newfoundland., the Maddalene group, the island today called Prince Edward, the coast of the Gaspé peninsula and the Anticosti island. The favorable demeanor of the natives and the glimpsed river entrance to the west encouraged Cartier to make a second journey (1535), which led him to the mouth of the San Lorenzo and up the great river to the city of Stadacona, where today Quebec is. and at the other center of Hochelaga, near present-day Montreal. The return to the wide Strait of Caboto ends by demonstrating the shape of the gulf and insularity of Newfoundland; instead a third trip (1541) adds nothing to the discoveries already made.

Only at the end of the century did the idea of ​​an attempt at colonization resurrect, which found its apostle in Samuel Champlain (v.). In 1603 we owe the exploration of the navigable course of the Saguenay, a tributary of the San Lorenzo, and the new recognition of the San Lorenzo up to the confluent of the Ottawa, in 1604 a minute exploration of the Atlantic shore from Cape Cod to Cape Breton, in 1608 the foundation of Quebec, in 1609 the exploration of the current Richelieu river up to Lake Champlain, in ’13 the recognition of the Ottawa river for more than 300 km., in ’15 the crossing of the whole country from Ottawa to Lake Nipissing, Lake Huron (Georgian Bay), Simcoe and Ontario. In 1621 Étienne Brulé reached Lake Superior and in 1634 the Franciscan Nicollet passed the Sault Sainte-Marie, portage of Wisconsin: the great lake system then begins to appear as a whole. While the French conquest thus opens the door to the Mississippi valley (v.), Chouart and Radisson attempt the terrestrial path up to Hudson Bay (1662), and their father Albanel reaches his destination ten years later from Lake Mistassini; the Franciscan Father Hennepin in 1678 gives the first extensive report of the Niagara waterfall; a noble Dulhut (badly misrepresented in Duluth) penetrates west of Lake Superior (1679), visits the Lake of the Woods and Nipigon, and places new French establishments everywhere; just three years later, the Radisson enters Hudson Bay by sea and attempts to establish another establishment at the mouth of the Nelson. Here, however, France was in contention with English rule, since,arctic, regions), the whole outline of that great inland sea could already be said to have been discovered and dominated by the English in broad outline; by 1668 a true government of the territory had been conferred by England on the Hudson’s Bay Trading Company. The French expansion (which, on the other hand, was extensively developing in the S. in the Mississippi valley), therefore stopped on this side, only with the century. XVIII begins to draw up the plan for new systematic explorations aimed at reaching the distant Pacific Ocean. The first is due to the Canadian Pierre Gaultier de Varennes de la Vérendrye, who took the western route from Lake Superior in 1731: in 1732 the great Lake Winnipeg was discovered at its S. extremity, and later Lake Manitoba, in 1738. the course of the Assiniboine is followed westward beyond 100 ° W.; the two sons of the explorer united with their father in daring and danger, they continued in 1742 as far as Missouri and crossed it, no one knows where, in view of high mountains covered with snow (the Rocky Mountains); in the following years Saskatchewan was discovered and, before La Vérendrye died (1749), the river was explored as far as the two major branches join.

With 1763 the new dominion of England, hitherto limited to the cold territories of Hudson’s Bay, took over the whole great extension of Canada. The Company of the Bay in 1754-55 had sent a first expedition from Fort York to the west, led by Anthony Hendry to meet Saskatchewan, then continued between the two major branches of the river to the foot of the Rockies among the Blackfoot Indians at N. of the plague where Calgary is today. Hendry’s discoveries, and those that Matteo Cocking added on slightly different itineraries in 1772, naturally joined those of La Vérendrye, and approached the moment when the entire immense district between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans would be opened. Upon completion of the crossing up to However, the Western Ocean precedes the reaching of the Glacial Sea by Samuel Hearne, who penetrated in 1770-71 from the mouth of the Churchill to the Coppermine River and followed it to its outlet in the unknown northern sea, discovering the Great Lake of the Slaves. Followed, in 1778, by Peter Pond that from Saskatchewan reached Lake Athabaska, and finally Alessandro Mackenzie who in 1789, relying for more than 1600 kilometers on the great watercourse that was later named after him, flowed into the great waters of the Ice Sea. Having accomplished this great revealing exploration of so much of the northern lands, the Mackenzie set about the other great enterprise of reaching the Pacific Ocean: after a winter along the River of Peace at the foot of the Rocks, crossing the snowy and wild mountains, it reached the Fraser, then through the Bella Coola valley it reached the Pacific shore on July 20, 1793 at 52 ° 21 ‘N. 1791-94) along all these coasts today English had really completed the discovery, begun by Bering and Čirikov arrived with Russian ships to the coast of St. Elias and to the Prince of Wales island (1741), continued by James Cook in his famous expedition of 1778 carried out along the outer edge of the entire island series, finally renewed by various Spanish expeditions, maximum that of the Italian Alessandro Malaspina to the Tlingit and Sant’Elia. With these explorations they could finally be said to have been marked with the end of the century. XVIII the fundamental lines of the drawing of the

The explorations of the century. XIX completed the great design, while leaving to the XX the minute recognition of much of the forest area and the tundra. For the most northern part, the exploration is part of the history of the arctic campaigns (see arctic, regions); for the area to the West of the Hudson Bay, the work of Ph. Turner and P. Fidler, at the end of the century, should be remembered. Eighteenth and early nineteenth in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan region and along the Churchill; by Simone Fraser who first explores and follows the river named by him to its mouth; by David Thompson who, starting from 1807, traced a large number of itineraries, made astronomical determinations, founded establishments between the great Bay and the Pacific, crossing the Rocky Mountains three times; of Finlay who in 1824 discovered the branch of the River of Peace that bears his name today, of Macleod that ten years later goes up through the forests the course of the Liard and recognizes the Stikine descending to the Pacific, by R. Campbell who in 1840 reaches from the Liard the sources of the Pelly (Yukon) and in 1843 and 1850 the downstream exploration to Alaska. In 1861 R. Kennicott, following the Mackenzie up to the lower course, reached from here through the northernmost branches of the Rocks the Fort Yukon on the great river; in 1873 GM Dawson begins the memorable series of topographical and geological explorations which for thirty years will continue laboriously through all the Canadian Cordillera, in the Yukon Basin and in the archipelagos of the Pacific coast. In Canada proper, as is natural, the systematic exploration of the territory was already far more advanced at this time: among all the topographical works by Bouchette of the Royal Corps of Engineers, carried out between 1820 and 1827 and which served as the basis for his classic description of English America.

Canada Border and Explorations