Cabo Verde 1982

By | September 13, 2023

Cape Verde in 1982: A Year of Independence and Development

In 1982, Cape Verde, a small island nation located off the northwest coast of Africa, was navigating the early years of its independence from Portuguese colonial rule. This article provides a comprehensive overview of Cape Verde in 1982, covering its political landscape, economy, society, and key developments during that period.

Historical Context

Cape Verde’s history is characterized by its colonization by the Portuguese in the 15th century. For centuries, the islands served as a vital trade and maritime hub, but the legacy of colonialism left the archipelago with socio-economic challenges. On July 5, 1975, Cape Verde gained independence from Portugal and embarked on a journey of self-determination.

Political Landscape

In 1982, Cape Verde was a young republic and a multiparty democracy. Key features of the country’s political landscape during that time included:

  1. President Aristides Pereira: Aristides Pereira, a prominent figure in the fight for independence, served as the first President of Cape Verde after independence in 1975. He remained in power until 1991.
  2. Multiparty System: According to hyperrestaurant, Cape Verde adopted a multiparty system, and the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV) was the ruling party. The political landscape was characterized by democratic elections and a peaceful transition of power.
  3. Foreign Policy: Cape Verde pursued a foreign policy of non-alignment and maintained diplomatic relations with various countries, particularly those in Africa, Europe, and the United States.


Cape Verde’s economy in 1982 was largely agrarian and dependent on agriculture, but the government was actively working to diversify and develop other sectors. Key aspects of the Cape Verdean economy during that period included:

  1. Agriculture: Agriculture was the primary livelihood for many Cape Verdeans, with crops such as maize, beans, and cassava being grown on the islands. Droughts were a recurring challenge for the agricultural sector.
  2. Fishing: Fishing was a significant economic activity, providing a source of food and income for coastal communities.
  3. Remittances: Many Cape Verdeans had emigrated to other countries, particularly the United States and Europe, and remittances from the diaspora played a crucial role in the country’s economy.
  4. Infrastructure Development: The government invested in infrastructure development, including roads, ports, and airports, to facilitate economic growth and tourism.
  5. Tourism: Cape Verde was beginning to promote tourism as a key industry, capitalizing on its natural beauty, diverse landscapes, and cultural heritage.
  6. Diversification Efforts: The government recognized the need to diversify the economy beyond agriculture and fishing and was exploring opportunities in industry and services.

Society and Culture

Cape Verdean society in 1982 was characterized by a rich cultural heritage influenced by its history of migration, blending African, European, and Creole traditions. Key aspects of Cape Verdean society and culture during that period included:

  1. Music: Cape Verde was renowned for its music, particularly the morna and coladeira genres. Artists like Cesária Évora gained international recognition for their contributions to Cape Verdean music.
  2. Language: The official language was Portuguese, but Cape Verdean Creole (Kriolu) was widely spoken and served as a symbol of cultural identity.
  3. Emigration: A significant portion of the Cape Verdean population had emigrated abroad in search of better economic opportunities, resulting in a strong diaspora community.
  4. Education: Cape Verde had a growing education system, with an emphasis on improving literacy rates and access to primary education.
  5. Cultural Festivals: Festivals and celebrations were an integral part of Cape Verdean culture, with events like Carnival and the Festival of São João being important cultural traditions.

Key Developments and Challenges

In 1982, Cape Verde faced several key developments and challenges:

  1. Economic Diversification: The government was actively pursuing economic diversification and tourism development to reduce dependence on agriculture and remittances.
  2. Drought: Periodic droughts were a significant challenge for the agricultural sector and food security on the islands.
  3. Infrastructure Development: Investment in infrastructure was critical for connecting remote islands and fostering economic growth.
  4. Migration: Emigration continued to shape Cape Verdean society, with many Cape Verdeans living abroad and sending remittances back to their families.
  5. Cultural Promotion: Cape Verde was proud of its cultural heritage and was actively promoting its music, dance, and cuisine on the international stage.
  6. Education: The government recognized the importance of education in driving social and economic development and was working to improve access and quality.


In 1982, Cape Verde was navigating the early years of its independence with a vision for economic development, political stability, and the preservation of its unique cultural identity. The nation had made significant strides in establishing a democratic political system, promoting tourism, and investing in infrastructure.

Over the years, Cape Verde would continue to develop and modernize, facing challenges such as climate change, economic disparities, and the need for sustainable development. The Cape Verdean people’s resilience and their commitment to preserving their culture and heritage have played a pivotal role in the nation’s progress and global recognition.

Primary education in Cape Verde

Primary Education in Cape Verde: Nurturing Minds for a Bright Future

Primary education in Cape Verde plays a critical role in shaping the nation’s future, providing children with foundational knowledge, skills, and values. This article offers a comprehensive overview of primary education in Cape Verde, including its structure, curriculum, challenges, and recent developments.

Historical Context

Cape Verde, a small island nation off the northwest coast of Africa, gained independence from Portuguese colonial rule on July 5, 1975. Since then, the country has been on a journey of self-determination and development. Education has been a central focus of Cape Verde’s efforts to improve the well-being of its citizens and foster economic growth.

Structure of Primary Education

In Cape Verde, primary education, referred to as “Ensino Básico,” is compulsory and typically spans six years, starting around the age of six. The structure of primary education in Cape Verde is as follows:

  1. Ciclo Inicial (Initial Cycle): This initial cycle covers the first three years, corresponding to Grades 1 to 3. During this stage, the emphasis is on acquiring foundational literacy and numeracy skills.
  2. Ciclo Complementar (Complementary Cycle): The second cycle spans Grades 4 to 6 and builds upon the foundational skills acquired in the initial cycle. It introduces additional subjects beyond basic literacy and numeracy.


According to allcitycodes, the curriculum for primary education in Cape Verde is designed to provide a well-rounded education with key components, including:

  1. Languages: Portuguese is the official language of instruction, reflecting Cape Verde’s colonial heritage. Cape Verdean Creole (Kriolu) is also widely spoken and serves as a bridge between school and home for many students.
  2. Mathematics: Mathematics education covers a range of topics, including arithmetic, geometry, algebra, and basic statistics.
  3. Science: The science curriculum introduces students to basic scientific concepts and principles in subjects like biology, chemistry, and physics.
  4. Social Studies: This subject area includes lessons on Cape Verdean history, geography, and civics, helping students develop an understanding of their country and the world.
  5. Physical Education: Physical education classes promote physical fitness, health, and teamwork among students.
  6. Arts and Culture: Cape Verde places great importance on cultural education, including traditional music, dance, and art, as a way to preserve its rich heritage.
  7. Ethics and Citizenship: Lessons on ethics, citizenship, and social responsibility are included to help students become informed and responsible citizens.

Challenges and Issues

While Cape Verde has made significant progress in expanding access to primary education, it faces several challenges and issues:

  1. Access to Education: Despite being compulsory, access to quality primary education remains a challenge, particularly in remote and rural areas.
  2. Quality of Education: The quality of education varies, with issues such as overcrowded classrooms, a shortage of qualified teachers, and limited teaching materials.
  3. Language Barrier: The use of Portuguese as the primary language of instruction can pose a challenge for students whose first language is Cape Verdean Creole.
  4. Teacher Training: The recruitment and professional development of qualified teachers, especially in rural areas, are ongoing challenges.
  5. Gender Disparities: While efforts have been made to promote gender equality in education, gender disparities in enrollment and completion rates persist, with girls facing unique barriers.
  6. Multilingual Education: Balancing the use of Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole as mediums of instruction while maintaining a strong focus on both languages is a complex task.

Recent Developments

In recent years, Cape Verde has taken several initiatives to address the challenges in its primary education system and enhance its quality:

  1. Teacher Training: The government has invested in teacher training programs to improve the qualifications and skills of educators, particularly in rural and underserved areas.
  2. Infrastructure Improvement: Efforts have been made to upgrade school infrastructure, including the construction of new classrooms and the provision of sanitation facilities.
  3. Inclusivity: Cape Verde has implemented policies to promote gender equality in education, aiming to eliminate barriers that hinder girls’ access to schooling.
  4. Curriculum Reforms: Ongoing curriculum reforms seek to make education more relevant and responsive to the needs of students and society, with a focus on critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
  5. Community Engagement: Encouraging community involvement and parental engagement in education has been a key strategy to improve the quality of primary education.

Cape Verde’s Education Vision

Cape Verde’s vision for education extends beyond primary schools. The country recognizes that education is a key driver of economic growth and social development. With a commitment to improving access, quality, and relevance in education, Cape Verde aspires to achieve the following:

  1. Universal Access: Ensuring that every child, regardless of location or socio-economic background, has access to quality primary education.
  2. Quality Education: Providing a high-quality education that equips students with the knowledge, skills, and values needed to succeed in a rapidly changing world.
  3. Bilingual Proficiency: Promoting bilingual proficiency in both Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole to facilitate effective communication and academic success.
  4. Inclusivity: Ensuring that all students, including girls, children with disabilities, and those from marginalized communities, have equal opportunities in education.
  5. Global Citizenship: Preparing students to be responsible global citizens who contribute to Cape Verde’s development and engage in the global community.


Primary education in Cape Verde serves as the foundation upon which the nation’s future is built. The government’s commitment to expanding access, improving quality, and fostering inclusivity in education reflects Cape Verde’s determination to empower its young citizens and prepare them for a brighter and more prosperous future.