Burundi is a small, landlocked country in East Africa. It is bordered by Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Lake Tanganyika. The population of Burundi is estimated to be 11.5 million people and 87% of them are Hutu, while the remaining 13% are Tutsi. The official languages are Kirundi and French, although English is also widely spoken in the cities.
Burundi’s economy is primarily agricultural with subsistence farming being the main source of income for most households. Coffee has traditionally been an important export crop but recently other agricultural produce such as tea, cotton and maize have become increasingly important sources of income for farmers.
The social structure in Burundi is largely based on traditional tribal hierarchies with the Tutsis traditionally occupying higher positions than Hutus in terms of political power and economic wealth. This has led to some tension between these two ethnic groups in recent years with a number of conflicts between them having occurred since independence in 1962.
Education levels remain low in Burundi with only 58% of adults being literate according to a 2019 survey by UNESCO. Poor access to education contributes to high poverty levels as many people lack the skills necessary to find employment or start their own businesses.
Healthcare provision is also inadequate with only 32% of births attended by skilled health personnel according to WHO data from 2017 and an infant mortality rate that stands at 43 deaths per 1,000 live births according to UNICEF estimates from 2018. Malaria remains a major cause of death among children under 5 years old due to poor access to preventive measures such as mosquito nets or medicines that can treat it effectively when it does occur.
The culture in Burundi is heavily influenced by its African heritage with traditional music and dance still being performed today at festivals and celebrations throughout the country. Christianity has had a significant influence on Burundian culture with around 75% of people identifying as Christian according to a 2010 census conducted by the government.
Demographics of Burundi
Burundi is a landlocked country in East Africa, bordered by Tanzania, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. According to wholevehicles.com, the population of Burundi is estimated to be 11.5 million people and 87% of them are Hutu, while the remaining 13% are Tutsi. The official languages are Kirundi and French, although English is also widely spoken in the cities.
The Hutus are the largest ethnic group in Burundi and comprise around 85% of the population. They mainly inhabit the western and northern regions of the country and traditionally practice subsistence farming as their primary occupation. The Tutsis make up around 13% of the population and are mainly concentrated in the eastern region where they have traditionally been politically influential due to their higher social status within Burundian society.
In addition to these two main ethnic groups there are also small numbers of Twa (Pygmies) who live in isolated communities mostly located in forested areas near Lake Tanganyika. There is also a small minority population of Europeans (mainly French) as well as some Arabs who have settled in urban areas such as Bujumbura, Gitega, and Ngozi.
Religion plays an important role in Burundian culture with 75% of people identifying as Christian according to a 2010 census conducted by the government. Around 20% follow indigenous beliefs while there is also a small Muslim community living mainly in urban areas such as Bujumbura.
The majority of Burundians live below the poverty line with over 60% having an income below $1 per day according to World Bank data from 2017. This has led to high levels of unemployment with only 40% of people aged 15-24 having jobs according to 2017 estimates from The International Labour Organization (ILO).
Burundi’s economy is primarily agricultural with subsistence farming being the main source of income for most households. Coffee has traditionally been an important export crop but recently other agricultural produce such as tea, cotton and maize have become increasingly important sources social structure remains largely based on traditional tribal hierarchies with Tutsis traditionally occupying higher positions than Hutus when it comes to political power and economic wealth which has caused some tension between these two ethnic groups over recent years leading to a number of conflicts since independence in 1962.
Education levels remain low in Burundi with only 58% adults being literate according to 2019 survey by UNESCO which contributes high poverty levels many people lacking skills necessary find employment or start their own businesses due poor access education opportunities available them. Healthcare provision inadequate 32% births attended skilled health personnel according WHO data 2017 infant mortality rate 43 deaths per 1,000 live births UNICEF estimates 2018 malaria remains major cause death among children under 5 years old poor access preventive measures mosquito nets medicines treat effectively when does occur.
The culture Burundi heavily influenced African heritage traditional music dance still performed today festivals celebrations throughout country Christianity had significant influence culture around 75% people identifying Christian 2010 census conducted government.
Poverty in Burundi
Poverty in Burundi is one of the most severe in the world. According to the World Bank, more than half of the population lives below the poverty line, with 78 percent living on less than $1.90 per day. The extreme poverty rate is even higher, at 39 percent. This is a result of several factors, including low economic growth, a lack of access to education and health care services, and political instability. Education levels are among the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa and only 40 percent of children complete primary school. Health care services are also limited, with only one doctor for every 10,000 people in Burundi. Additionally, political instability has been a major factor in hindering economic development and preventing people from accessing basic services such as health care and education. In 2015, there were violent protests against President Pierre Nkurunziza’s decision to extend his term for a third consecutive year which further exacerbated poverty levels across the country.
The impact of poverty on Burundi has been devastating; it has led to poor nutrition and inadequate access to clean water for many households throughout the country. Malnutrition rates remain high among children under five years old; stunting affects about 43 percent of children under five years old while wasting affects about 11 percent of those same children. Poor sanitation practices are also common due to lack of access to safe water sources; this often leads to outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as cholera and diarrheal diseases which disproportionately affect vulnerable populations such as young children and pregnant women who are more likely to suffer from malnutrition due to insufficient diets or an inability to access healthcare services when needed. In addition, poverty has resulted in low employment opportunities across Burundi resulting in high unemployment rates for both men and women; this has further contributed significantly towards worsening living standards for many households across the country.
Labor Market in Burundi
According to Countryvv, the labor market in Burundi is characterized by low employment opportunities, high unemployment rates, and a lack of skills training. The majority of the population is employed in the informal sector, with just 14 percent of households engaged in formal employment. The formal sector consists mostly of government workers and those employed by large companies, while the informal sector is composed mainly of subsistence farmers and small-scale traders. The majority of workers are employed in agriculture, which accounts for about 60 percent of total employment.
The informal labor market in Burundi is characterized by low wages and limited access to social protection services such as health care and pensions. Additionally, there are few job opportunities available that require skilled labor or specialized training. This lack of access to skilled jobs has led to a large number of underemployed workers who are unable to find work that matches their qualifications or experience. This contributes to the high levels of poverty and inequality seen throughout the country as those without access to higher education or specialized training are unable to earn enough money to support themselves or their families.
In addition, many employers in Burundi do not offer contracts or other forms of job security which leaves workers vulnerable to exploitation by employers who can threaten them with dismissal if they do not comply with their demands. This lack of job security has prevented many people from seeking better paying jobs outside their local area as they fear being left without an income if they leave or lose their current job due to unforeseen circumstances such as illness.
Furthermore, due to political instability in the country there have been periods where businesses have had difficulty accessing financing for investment projects which has caused some firms to close down resulting in a decrease in employment opportunities across the country. Additionally, due to a lack of investment into infrastructure projects there have been limited opportunities for businesses to expand which has resulted in fewer jobs being created for both skilled and unskilled labor.