Bhutan Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022
Basic data
Capital Thimphu
Population 787 thousand
Language Dzongkha
Religion Buddhism (75.3%), Hinduism (22.1%)
State system Constitutional monarchy
Head of State King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchung
Head of government Lotay Tshering
Currency name Ngultrum (BTN)
Time shift + 5 hours (in summer + 4 hours)
Economy 2021
Nominal GDP (billion USD) 9.4
Economic growth (%) 6.5
Inflation (%) 6.8
Unemployment (%) ON

Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in the eastern Himalayas, located between China and India. Bhutan is known as “Druk Yul” or “Land of the Thunder Dragon”. Nepal and Bangladesh lie close to Bhutan but do not share a land border. The country has a population of more than 787,000.

The largest population groups are Bhuts (50%) and ethnic Nepalis (35%). The predominant religion is Tibetan Buddhism.

Bhutan’s economy is one of the smallest in the world, growing rapidly in recent years. The economy in Bhutan is based on agriculture, forestry, tourism and the sale of hydropower to India. Agriculture provides the main livelihood for 5percent of the population. Exports of Bhutan, mainly electricity, cardamom, gypsum, wood, handicrafts, cement, fruits, precious stones and spices. Major imported items include fuels and lubricants, grain, machinery, vehicles, fabrics and rice. Bhutan’s economy is in many ways self-sufficient, depending heavily on India, development aid and loans.

Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy with Vajrayana Buddhism as its state religion. The government is appointed by the king and run by its president. The 2008 Constitution establishes a parliamentary government with an elected National Assembly and National Council. Bhutan is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). In 2020, Bhutan ranked third in South Asia in the Human Development Index after Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Bhutan is also a member of Climate Vulnerable Forum, Non-Aligned Movement, BIMSTEC, IMF, World Bank, UNESCO and World Health Organization (WHO).

Despite all efforts, Bhutan remains highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. They face increasing threats from extreme climate events such as flash floods, glacial lake outbursts, windstorms, forest fires and landslides.

This summary territorial information is processed for the country that is so-called accredited. The information is provided in an abbreviated form.

Basic information about the territory


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Official name of the country : Kingdom of Bhutan (Kingdom of Bhutan, Druk Gyalkhap)

King: Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchung (on the throne since 14.12.2006)

Composition of the government:

The government, appointed by the king and directed by its president, has a total of 10 ministers. The current composition of the government is as follows:

– Prime Minister: Lotay Tshering

– Minister of Foreign Affairs: Dr. Thandi Dorji

– Minister of Interior and Cultural Affairs: Ugyen Dorji

– Minister of Agriculture and Forestry: Yeshey Penjor

– Economic Affairs Minister: Loknath Sharma

– Minister of Information and Communications: Karma Donnen Wangdi

– Education Minister: Jai Bir Rai

– Minister of Health: Dechen Wangmo

– Minister of Finance: Namgay Tshering

– Minister of Settlements: Dorji Tshering

– Minister of Labour: Karma Dorji

Political tendencies:

The government of Bhutan has been a constitutional monarchy since 18 July 2008. The King of Bhutan is the head of state. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Legislative power is vested in a bicameral parliament, both the upper chamber, the National Council, and the lower chamber, the National Assembly.

In 2008, Bhutan adopted its first modern constitution, which codified the governmental institutions and legal framework for a multi-party democratic system. There are four political parties in Bhutan, of which only two make it to parliament with a majority of votes. Currently in power is the social democratic party Druk Nyamprup Tsogpa (DNT), which has 32 seats. The other party is the more conservative Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (DPT), which has 15 seats. The lower chamber has a total of 47 seats. Check equzhou to learn more about Bhutan political system.

The year 2021 was the third year of the new government’s term of office, which came with a program to strengthen governance systems, initiate reforms, build the economy, uplift the lower parts of society, protect health and increase education, and especially solve the problem of unemployment. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has forced the government to suspend a number of plans and change the priorities of its activities. Elections to local councils became an important domestic political event. Local government members completed their terms on 26 October 2021.

Foreign policy of the country

As in previous years and decades, Bhutan has maintained the status quo in its foreign policy orientation, in which India occupies a dominant position. Although the coronavirus pandemic did not allow more physical contact, both countries made sure to send enough signals of mutual engagement, in the political, security and also economic fields.

Bhutan also maintained the status quo in its relationship with China. The two countries remain without diplomatic relations as well as significant economic interactions. Bhutan does not participate in the One Belt One Road initiative. At the same time, it maintains restraint in signals that could irritate China. In November 2021, Bhutan and China signed a memorandum of understanding with Bhutan regarding the resolution of territorial issues. Check recipesinthebox for Bhutan defense and foreign policy.

Among the more significant bilateral events was the March meeting between the Prime Ministers of Bhutan and Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasini and Lotay Tshering. The two Prime Ministers agreed to explore a possible rail network between the two countries through India’s launched Chilahati-Haldibari rail link. They also agreed to explore the possibility of establishing air cargo transport. Bangladesh and Bhutan signed a Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) in December 2020, and both sides believe it will help expand mutual trade.


Number of inhabitants and population density:

Approximately 787,000 inhabitants live in Bhutan, the population density is 21 inhabitants/km2. The average annual increase was 0.99% (2021 estimate).

Demographic composition:

Bhuts – 50%, ethnic Nepalese – 35% (Lhotšamps), indigenous and migrant tribes – 15%.

Official language:

The official language is Dzongkha, the other most spoken languages ​​are Sharchhopka and Lhotshamkha.


Tibetan Buddhism: 75.3%, Hinduism: 22.1%, Islam and other 2.6% (2005 est.).

Bhutan Basic Information