Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
Official name of the country : The People’s Republic of Bangladesh (The People’s Republic of Bangladesh)
President : Abdul Hamid (in office since 20/03/2013)
Composition of the government:
The cabinet consists of ministers with a separate portfolio and so-called state ministers with partial powers, falling under the office of one of the ministers. The government is composed of 25 cabinet ministers, 19 state ministers and three deputy ministers. Prime Minister Hasini is in charge of the Ministry of Public Administration, the Ministry of Defense, the Armed Forces Division, and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.
– Finance Minister: AHM Mustafa Kamal
– Minister of Industry: Nurul Majid Mahmud Humayun
– Commerce Minister: Tipu Munshi
– Planning Minister: MA Mannan
– Minister of Agriculture: Md Abdur Razzaque
– Home Minister: Asaduzzaman Khan Kamal
– Minister of Health and Family: Zahid Maleque
– Minister for Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives: Md Tajul Islam
– Minister of Fisheries and Domestic Animals: SM Rezaul Karim
– Minister for Environment, Forests and Climate Change: Md Shahab Uddin
– Minister of Lands: Saifuzzaman Chowdhury
– Minister of Posts, Telecommunications and Information Technologies: Mustafa Jabbar
– Minister for Liberation War Affairs: AKM Mozammel Haque
– Minister for Chittagong Hill Tracts Affairs: Bir Bahadur Ushwe Shing
– Minister of Textiles and Jute: Golam Dastagir Gazi
– Minister of Land Transport and Bridges: Obaidul Quader
– Minister of Information: Hasan Mahmud
– Minister of Education: Dr. Dip Moni
– Minister of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs: Anisul Huq
– Foreign Minister: AK Abdul Momen
– Minister of Railways: Md Nurul Islam Sujan
– Minister of Science and Technology: Architect Yeafesh Osman
– Food Minister: Sadhan Chandra Majumder
– Minister for Social Welfare: Nuruzzaman Ahmed
– Minister for Employment and Welfare of Foreign Workers: Imran Ahmad
2022 is the fourth year of the old Awami League government’s term and also a year of further decline in the influence of the main opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party without its still-imprisoned chairperson Khaleda Zia. Awami League President Sheikh Hasina, the longest-serving prime minister in Bangladesh’s history, is currently serving her fourth term. The government remains firmly in the saddle, the influence of the main opposition party Bangladesh Nationalist Party has been marginal for a long time. Although its chairwoman Khaleda Zia was temporarily released from prison for the second time on humanitarian grounds and the execution of her sentence was suspended, she is forced to stay in her residence. Political events in 2021 were significantly affected by the coronavirus pandemic. The overall situation is adversely affected by the presence of more than 1 million Rohingya refugees in the country. Even after three and a half years, it is still not possible to arrange their repatriation back to Myanmar. The next parliamentary elections will be held in 2023, which will most likely be dominated again by the strongest party, the Awami League. Check equzhou to learn more about Bangladesh political system.
Foreign policy of the country
India is historically and geographically the most natural partner of Bangladesh. Relations between the two countries, especially at the political level, have been relatively friendly in the past period. However, fundamental obstacles prevent Bangladesh from deepening them further. These include the delay in signing the Teesta River Agreement, continued anti-dumping measures on Bangladeshi exports of jute and jute products, as well as the killing of Bangladeshi citizens by Indian border forces. Bangladesh is also not very happy with India’s relatively lackluster role in the case of Rohingya refugees, and also has a negative perception of India’s prickliness regarding Bangladesh’s relations with China. As of 2019, the amendment to the Citizenship Act, which made it easier for non-Muslim migrants from Bangladesh (as well as from Pakistan and Afghanistan) to obtain Indian citizenship, but not for Muslims. Check recipesinthebox for Bangladesh defense and foreign policy.
Another important foreign partner is China. The mutual relations are mainly based on trade and investment cooperation, with State Master of Foreign Affairs Shahriar Alam describing China’s support for Bangladesh as a blessing. China has consistently supported Bangladesh through the implementation of infrastructure construction, the provision of concessional loans and investment cooperation. The Padma Bridge Rail Link Project, funded by concessional loans from the Chinese government, is currently the largest G2G project under the “Belt and Road Initiative”. The tunnel being built under the Karnaphuli River is the only under-river tunnel in South Asia financed by concessional loans from the Chinese government. In addition, Chinese companies are also building a railway in the Cox’s Bazar area. In the field of energy, a number of large infrastructure projects are being implemented with Chinese help,
Relations with the USA are not quite on the same wavelength. The US wants Bangladesh on its side in the Indo-Pacific Strategy. Experts say the said strategy includes a security component to counter China, and the question is whether it is in the country’s interest to join the strategy. According to experts, it would be wise for the country not to join any alliance containing a security component. The problem is that the US is Bangladesh’s largest single export destination and the country’s second largest investor. The US has imposed sanctions on selected members of the elite military unit (RAB), which the United States says is involved in serious human rights abuses, kidnappings and killings.
Due to bloody historical reminiscences, long-term negative relations exist between Bangladesh and Pakistan.
The European Union has a representation in Bangladesh. The EU is Bangladesh’s largest export market. In recent times, the EU’s relations with Bangladesh have been focused on the formation of GSP rules for the next years, the state of labor rights, humanitarian aid in the Rohingya refugee crisis and support for the fight against the coronavirus pandemic. The EU has also provided humanitarian aid in response to the cyclones and floods that plague the country every year. The EU has said that Bangladesh will not be granted the GSP+ preferential system that Bangladesh is lobbying for until it implements 27 core UN conventions on labor reforms, human rights and governance. The EU has expressed concern over the provision of the Digital Security Act (DSA), which is often targeted against the democratic opposition, journalists and human rights activists. Bangladesh is an important partner for the EU in the framework of the Indo-Pacific strategy. The EU is an important funder of humanitarian and development cooperation.
Number of inhabitants and population density:
Around 164 million people live in Bangladesh, the population density is 1,100. /km2. The average annual increase is 0.95%.
Around 98% of the population is Bengalis. The rest are made up of indigenous groups. The Government of Bangladesh recognizes 27 indigenous ethnic groups under the Small Anthropological Groups Cultural Institutions Act of 2010.
Official language :
The official language is Bengali.
Main religion: Muslim (89.1%), Hindu (10%), other (0.9%)