Bangladesh 1983

By | September 11, 2023

In 1983, the People’s Republic of Bangladesh was a young but resilient nation located in South Asia. This period marked a crucial juncture in its history, with the country facing a multitude of challenges and striving for progress. Here is an overview of Bangladesh in 1983:

Political Landscape:

According to ezinereligion, Bangladesh was a parliamentary democracy in 1983 with a tumultuous political history since its independence from Pakistan in 1971. The country’s first Prime Minister, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, had been assassinated in 1975, leading to political instability and several military coups. In 1983, President Hussain Muhammad Ershad held power through a military regime after a coup in 1982. His rule marked a period of authoritarianism.


Bangladesh’s economy in 1983 was primarily based on agriculture, with rice, jute, and tea as key exports. The country was one of the world’s largest producers of jute and was known as the “Golden Fiber.” Jute exports were a significant source of revenue.

The economy faced numerous challenges, including poverty, a growing population, and a lack of infrastructure. Efforts were being made to diversify the economy and reduce its dependence on agriculture. The government was taking steps to promote industrialization and expand the manufacturing sector.

Society and Culture:

Bangladesh’s society and culture in 1983 were deeply influenced by its Bengali heritage, which encompassed a rich history of literature, music, and art. Bengali, written in the Bengali script, was the official language and the heart of the nation’s cultural identity.

Islam was the predominant religion in Bangladesh, with the majority of the population being Sunni Muslims. Religious festivals and traditions played an essential role in the country’s culture.

Education and healthcare were priorities for the government. Efforts were made to increase literacy rates and provide access to basic healthcare services. Dhaka, the capital city, was home to several universities and educational institutions.

Foreign Relations:

Bangladesh’s foreign policy in 1983 was marked by efforts to balance relations with neighboring India and Pakistan, both of which had played significant roles in its history. The country sought to maintain friendly ties with India while working towards improved relations with Pakistan.

Additionally, Bangladesh was an active member of international organizations, including the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement. The country’s foreign policy focused on economic development, poverty reduction, and self-reliance.

Challenges and Regional Context:

Bangladesh faced numerous challenges in 1983:

  1. Poverty: A significant portion of the population lived in poverty, and income inequality was a pressing issue.
  2. Natural Disasters: The country was susceptible to natural disasters, including cyclones, flooding, and monsoon rains, which often led to loss of life and damage to infrastructure.
  3. Population Growth: Bangladesh had one of the world’s highest population growth rates, which put immense pressure on resources and infrastructure.
  4. Political Instability: Frequent changes in government and political instability hindered progress and development.

Cultural Milestones:

Despite the challenges, Bangladesh continued to celebrate its cultural heritage in 1983. Bengali literature, music, and art thrived, and the country’s cultural identity was a source of pride. The annual Dhaka International Film Festival and Dhaka International Folk Festivals were among the cultural events that showcased Bangladesh’s artistic talents.


In 1983, Bangladesh was a nation in transition, grappling with political instability, economic challenges, and a growing population. Its rich cultural heritage, rooted in Bengali traditions, continued to thrive, and the country was making efforts to address its developmental needs. While political uncertainty and economic hardships persisted, Bangladesh’s resilient spirit and determination laid the foundation for progress in the years to come.

Location of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a vibrant and densely populated country located in South Asia. Its unique geographical location plays a pivotal role in shaping its climate, topography, culture, and economic activities. Situated in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent, Bangladesh is bordered by India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast. To the south, it faces the Bay of Bengal, which greatly influences its climate and culture. Here, we’ll delve into the geographical characteristics of Bangladesh.

Geographical Overview:

  • Land Area: According to paulfootwear, Bangladesh covers an area of approximately 147,570 square kilometers (56,980 square miles), making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world.
  • Latitude and Longitude: The geographical coordinates of Bangladesh range from approximately 20.75° N to 26.38° N latitude and 88.08° E to 92.67° E longitude.

Bordering Countries:

Bangladesh shares its borders with three countries:

  1. India (West, North, and East): India surrounds Bangladesh on three sides, making it the country’s largest neighbor. The India-Bangladesh border is one of the longest international land borders globally.
  2. Myanmar (Southeast): To the southeast, Bangladesh shares a border with Myanmar. This border stretches along the Chittagong Hill Tracts region and the Naf River.

Coastline and the Bay of Bengal:

  • Bay of Bengal: To the south, Bangladesh has a substantial coastline along the Bay of Bengal, which stretches for approximately 580 kilometers (360 miles). The Bay of Bengal is a crucial geographical feature that significantly influences Bangladesh’s climate, providing moisture for the monsoon rains.

Rivers and Riverine Landscape:

Bangladesh is often referred to as the “land of rivers” due to its extensive river network. The country is crisscrossed by numerous rivers, the most significant of which is the Ganges (Padma), the Brahmaputra (Jamuna), and the Meghna. These rivers form the basis of Bangladesh’s rich alluvial plains, which are highly fertile and ideal for agriculture.

  • The Ganges (Padma), originating in India, flows through the western part of Bangladesh, while the Brahmaputra (Jamuna) enters from the north, flowing through the central and northeastern regions. These two rivers converge in Bangladesh before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
  • The Meghna River, originating in the hills of northeastern India, flows through the southeastern part of Bangladesh and also empties into the Bay of Bengal.
  • Numerous other tributaries, distributaries, and smaller rivers crisscross the country, forming a complex and intricate network of waterways.


Bangladesh’s topography is characterized by flat and fertile plains, with the majority of the land being less than 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level. The country’s low-lying topography makes it susceptible to flooding, especially during the monsoon season when the major rivers overflow.


The geographical location of Bangladesh has a profound impact on its climate:

  • Monsoon Climate: Bangladesh experiences a monsoon climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The Bay of Bengal, to the south, plays a crucial role in the monsoon. The southwest monsoon, originating from the Bay of Bengal, brings heavy rainfall from June to October, resulting in the wet season. The northeast monsoon, characterized by dry and cool air, prevails from November to March.
  • Cyclones: Bangladesh is susceptible to tropical cyclones, which often originate in the Bay of Bengal and can cause significant devastation, particularly in coastal areas.

Natural Resources:

Bangladesh’s geographical characteristics have endowed it with abundant natural resources:

  • Agriculture: The fertile alluvial plains, nourished by the rivers, make Bangladesh highly suitable for agriculture. Rice, jute, tea, and various fruits and vegetables are among the country’s agricultural products.
  • Fisheries: Bangladesh has a thriving fishing industry due to its extensive river and coastal waters. Fish, both for local consumption and export, are a vital resource.
  • Forestry: The country’s hilly regions, such as the Chittagong Hill Tracts, support forestry activities, including the production of timber and bamboo.


Bangladesh’s geographical location, nestled between India, Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal, shapes its climate, topography, and economic activities. The extensive river network and fertile plains make it an agricultural powerhouse, while the monsoon rains and cyclones pose challenges for the population. Despite its geographical vulnerabilities, Bangladesh’s resourcefulness, cultural richness, and resilience have contributed to its growth and development in the region.