Azerbaijan Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

State name:

  • Republic of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan)
  • Azərbaycan Respublikasithe
  • Republic of Azerbaijan

Political arrangement:

Azerbaijan is based on the Constitution issued in 1995. Based on it, the country can be classified as a semi-presidential republic with three branches of power – legislative, executive and judicial. Check equzhou to learn more about Azerbaijan political system.

Executive power is in the hands of President Ilham Aliyev. The President is elected for seven-year terms in direct elections (after the 2009 amendment to the Constitution, he can be elected for more than 2 terms). The President appoints the Cabinet of Ministers and, in coordination with the Parliament (Milli Majlis), appoints the Prime Minister (Ali Asadov) and heads of local government. The president was elected to his fourth term in office in April 2018. First lady Mehriban Aliyeva became the first vice president of the country in 2017, who is also the first holder of this position.

Legislative power is held by the unicameral National Assembly (Miili Majlis) and the Supreme National Assembly in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The Milli Majlis is composed of 125 deputies elected from single-member constituencies for 5 years. Deputies do not form the government, but they approve it on the basis of the Constitution. The last elections to the Milli Majlis took place in February 2020, Sahiba Gafarova became the chairperson.

Judicial power is vested in the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Economic Court. The president appoints the judges of these courts.

President: Ilham Aliyev

Vice President: Mehriban Aliyeva

Composition of the government:

  • Prime Minister: Ali Asadov
  • First Deputy Prime Minister: Yagub Eyyubov
  • Deputy Prime Minister: Shahin Mustafayev
  • Deputy Prime Minister: Ali Ahmadov
  • Minister of Transport, Communications and High Technologies: Rashad Nabiyev
  • Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources: Mukhtar Babayev
  • Minister of Energy: Parviz Shahbazov
  • Minister of Finance: Samir Sharifov
  • Minister of Economy: Mikayil Jabbarov
  • Minister of Culture: Anar Karimov
  • Minister for Extraordinary Events: gen. major Kamaladdin Heydarov
  • Minister of Youth and Sports: Azad Rahimov
  • Minister of Defense Industry: Madat Guliyev
  • Minister of Defense: gen. colonel Zakir Hasanov
  • Minister of Labor and Social Protection of the Population: Sahil Babayev
  • Minister of Justice: Fikrat Mammadov
  • Minister of Education: Emin Amrullayev
  • Minister of the Interior: Vilayat Eyvazov
  • Foreign Minister: Jeyhun Bayramov
  • Minister of Health: Teymur Musayev
  • Minister of Agriculture: Inam Karimov

Institutions subordinate to the Cabinet of Ministers:

  • Food Safety Agency: Goshgar Tahmazli
  • Customs Administration: Safar Mehdiyev
  • Border guard: Elchin Guliyev
  • State Security Service: Ali Nagiyev
  • State Tourism Agency: Fuad Nagiyev
  • State Commission for Urban Construction and Architecture: Anar Guliyev
  • State Commission for Family, Women and Children Issues: Bahar Muradova
  • State Commission for Work with the Diaspora: Fuad Muradov
  • State Commission for Work with Religious Organizations: Mubariz Gurbanli
  • State Commission for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Rovshan Rzayev
  • State Migration Service (Foreigner Police): Vusal Huseynov
  • State Service for Mobilization and Conscription: Arzu Rahimov
  • State Statistical Commission: Tahir Budagov
  • Foreign Intelligence Service: Orkhan Sultanov

Parliament (Milli Majlis):

  • Speaker of Parliament: Sahiba Gafarova
  • First Deputy Speaker of the Parliament: Ali Huseynli
  • Deputy Speaker of Parliament: Adil Aliyev
  • Deputy Speaker of Parliament: Fazail Ibrahimli

Other important state institutions:

  • Governor of the Central Bank: Taleh Kazimov
  • Vice-President in Charge of Managing the State Oil Company (SOCAR): Rovshan Najaf
  • Director of the State Oil Fund (SOFAZ): Israfil Mammadov

Foreign policy of the country

Azerbaijan strives for a multi-vector policy and maintaining distance from all integration groupings, i.e. primarily Euro-Atlantic and Euro-Asian, and balanced relations with the EU and the Eurasian Economic Union. Azerbaijan is also not a member of the WTO. Check recipesinthebox for Azerbaijan defense and foreign policy.

In 2020, the 2nd Karabakh War broke out in the Karabakh region, which ended after 44 days on November 9 with a tripartite ceasefire agreement between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russia. Observance of the ceasefire is monitored by 1,960 Russian peacekeepers who are deployed in the area for an initial period of 5 years. In the next round of negotiations in January 2021, it was agreed to unblock the connection between the states and Armenia will provide Azerbaijan with access to the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. In November and December 2021, several more high-level talks took place and cooperation on demarcation and delimitation and the release of the rail link was agreed. Even though negotiations are progressing, relations between the two states remain fragile and there are frequent skirmishes on the contact line.

It can thus be expected that Turkey will become the most important political, economic and military partner for Azerbaijan in the years 2022-2026. Russia is also considered an important partner.

In Q3 2021, tensions with Iran increased. However, the situation calmed down relatively quickly, and already in November 2021, both states discussed the possibilities of cooperation in the production of hydrogen from the sources of the Caspian Sea. On November 28, 2021, a new trilateral swap agreement was even signed between Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkmenistan regarding the transfer of up to 2 billion m 3 of gas per year from Turkmenistan to Azerbaijan via Iran.


According to the State Statistical Commission of Azerbaijan, 10,26 thousand people were registered in the country as of 1 November 2021. resident. The population density is 123 inhabitants/km2. In 2020, 56.2% of the population lived in cities, thus continuing the long-term trend of the rural population moving to cities, especially to Baku. The largest city is Baku with million inhabitants, followed by Ganja (population 313,000) and Sumgait (population 265,150). The highest population density can be seen in Baku and its surroundings (approx. 1000 inhabitants/km2). The median age in Azerbaijan is 3 years.

Data on the national composition of the population is provided by the State Statistical Commission of Azerbaijan as of 2009:

  • Azeris: 90.6%
  • Lezgini: 2.0%
  • Russians: 1.3%
  • Armenians: 1.3%
  • Talish: 1.3%
  • Crashes: 0.6%
  • others: 2.9%

Religious composition:

  • Islam: 96% (about 85% Shia and 15% Sunni)
  • Christianity: 3%
  • Others: 1%

Azerbaijan Basic Information