Australia Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

The Commonwealth of Australia is a federal constitutional monarchy. The head of state is formally the British monarch, who is represented in Australia by the Governor-General (as of July 2019 David Hurley) and in each federal state by an additional governor. Six states and two autonomous territories have their own constitution and parliament. The federal legislature consists of the 151-member House of Representatives – the lower house, which is directly elected by a preferential voting system for a three-year term, and the 76-member Senate – the upper house, which is directly elected by proportional representation. Of the 76 members of the Senate, 72 are elected for six-year terms, with elections for half of the Senate every three years. The four senators representing the territories have a three-year mandate. Check diseaseslearning to learn more about Australia political system.

The main political parties are the Liberal and National parties (now in a long-standing coalition), the Australian Labor Party, the Green Party, the Center Alliance and One Nation. The prime minister of Australia has been Scott Morrison since 2018, who will lead his Liberal-National coalition government to the next election in 2022. Differences of opinion on energy policy and climate change persist in the coalition.

Composition of the government:

Prime Minister Scott Morrison
Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Development Barnaby Joyce
Minister for Finance Simon Birmingham
Josh Frydenberg (Treasurer)
Minister for Agriculture David Littleproud
Minister for the Environment Sussan Ley
Minister for Foreign Affairs Marise Payne
Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment Dan Tehan
Minister for Defense Peter Dutton
Home Secretary Karen Andrews
Minister for Health Greg Hunt
Minister for Industry, Science and Technology Christian Porter
Minister for Energy and Emissions Reduction Angus Taylor

Foreign policy of the country

The foreign policy of the Commonwealth of Australia is based on the principles of multilateralism and regionalism and is also influenced by Australia’s position as a major donor of humanitarian aid. Australia released its latest Foreign Policy White Paper in 2017. The country’s foreign policy priorities include free trade, the fight against terrorism, migration, economic cooperation within Asia and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Australia is an active member of a number of multilateral organizations and regional as well as global initiatives. Historically, Australia’s key allies are New Zealand, the United States of America and, of course, the United Kingdom, and it maintains close relations with the ASEAN grouping at the multilateral level. Australia closely cooperates with the European Union, with which it formalized relations in 1997 by signing a joint Declaration. The declaration was subsequently replaced by a new framework document “EU – Australia Partnership Framework”, which was signed on 29 October 2008 in Paris. Compared to previous contractual documents, the framework document on cooperation places particular emphasis on cooperation in the field of security and the fight against terrorism, education, science and technology, and cooperation in the areas of the environment, climate change and energy. During the official visit of the then Australian Prime Minister Gillard to Brussels in October 2010, an agreement was reached to formalize the developing mutual cooperation through a qualitatively higher document that has the character of a bilateral international agreement. This is a so-called framework agreement on cooperation (Framework Agreement). The first formal negotiations on this agreement between the EU and Australia opened in Canberra in November 2011. The signing of the Framework Agreement between the EU and Australia took place on August 7, 2017 in Manila. Now the document is in the process of ratification at the level of individual member states. Australia and the EU have the same approach to a number of international political topics, but we also find differences especially in the area of ​​migration and visa policy or in education (e.g. recognition of university diplomas). All Member States of the EU have established diplomatic relations with Australia, and 25 of them have their own diplomatic representation in Canberra. The Commonwealth of Australia’s foreign policy has become more oriented towards the Southeast Asian region over the past few years. Transatlantic ties and cooperation are also being strengthened through multilateral groupings (Quad, Five Eyes) and bilaterally (strategic partnerships). Australia has diplomatic representation in over 90 countries. In a number of these countries, Australia maintains an embassy or, in the case of the Commonwealth, a high commission. Australia is represented in the Czech Republic through the embassy in Warsaw and the honorary consulate and Austrade office in Prague. Check themotorcyclers for Australia defense and foreign policy.


The number of inhabitants as of September 30, 2020 was 25.69 million people, the annual population increase was 220,500 people (0.9%). The population increased from 61.4% due to natural increase and from 38.6% due to migration. The population density is per 1 km² (as of June 2020).

The most densely populated are the centers of the largest cities – Sydney (16,700 people per km²) and Melbourne (22,400 km²). In the financial year 2019-2020, the number of people living in capital cities increased to 17.4 million. (by 1.4%), in the regions by 1.1%.

The share of the economically active population was 66.3% as of March 2021, i.e. 17 million people from the total population. The age of the economically active population is 15-75 years, of which 70.4% are men and 60.5% are women. The average life expectancy between 2017-2019 was 80.9 years for men and 85.0 years for women. Life expectancy for both men and women in Australia is continuously increasing. Australia’s population growth in the last decade has increased to 1.6%. The birth rate in 2019 was 1.66 per woman. The proportion of men in Australia in 2019 was 49.59%, the proportion of women 50.41%. Australia is home to one of the world’s oldest cultures. The first Australian (Aboriginal) communities date back 60,000 years before European settlement.

Today, 200 nationalities and ethnic groups live in Australia. In 2010, 22 nationalities were registered with a number of people exceeding 400,000. persons.

National composition (as of last census 2011): British: 25.9%, Australian: 25.4%, Irish: 7.5%, Scottish: 6.4%, Italian: 3.3%, German: 3 .2%, Chinese: 3.1%.

Overview of religious beliefs and the number of people who adhere to it: Christianity – 1million (86% of all believers), no faith – million (around 30% of Australians), Islam – 604 thousand, Buddhism – 563 thousand., Hinduism – 440 thousand.

Australia Basic Information