History in Andorra
People began to settle in the valley of the Valira River as early as 3500 BC. Here lived the Iberians, who founded the first villages. In 200 B.C. the Romans came to the territory of present-day Andorra, who were later replaced by the German Visigoths, and in 414 by the Arabs. For the first time in history, Andorra, as an independent state, was mentioned in 805 in connection with the name of Charlemagne. It was his army, with the support of the local population, that defeated the Arabs. For this, the king gave them sovereignty.
For many years, Spain and France fought over this territory. In 1278, after the signing of the act of division, it became the property of two states. Now the rulers of Andorra were the Bishop of Urgell and the French Count, who appointed their own vigiers (governors). In 1419, permission was given to create an elective body in the country, which later became the General Council. The dual dependence of Andorra on Spain and France remains to this day. In 1993, a new democratic constitution was adopted, which abolished the feudal system of power that had existed since 1278.
Religion in Andorra
Believing Andorrans profess Catholicism.
Transport in Andorra
There is no airport in Andorra, the nearest ones are in Barcelona (Spain) and Toulouse (France), from where they can already be reached by bus. Distance to Barcelona – 210 km, to Toulouse – 196 km.
The railway network in Andorra is not developed, so all transportation is carried out by road. The main roads pass through mountain passes.
Within cities, it is better to use taxi services, which should be ordered by phone.
To rent a car, you must have a driver’s license, a credit card, be over 21 years old and have a driving experience of more than 2 years.
Plant and Animal World in Andorra
Forests occupy a third of the country’s territory up to an altitude of 2000 m. At the foot of the mountains, hard-leaved oaks, beech and chestnuts predominate, above there are spruce, fir and pine. In the alpine valleys there are subalpine meadows with thickets of flowering shrubs, rhododendrons and azaleas, creeping mountain pine, as well as lush tall grass meadows – excellent pastures for livestock. On the highest – alpine meadows – you can see crocuses, gentian, saxifrage, anemones, wild carnations.
The fauna of Andorra is represented by wild boars, mountain goats, the Pyrenean chamois izard, martens, foxes, squirrels, Catalan hares, moles and the Pyrenean muskrat. Of the birds, capercaillie, pheasants, eagle owls, buzzards and royal eagles are found here.
Minerals in Andorra
On the territory of the country there are small deposits of iron ore, lead, granite and marble.
Banks in Andorra
Banks are open from 9:00 to 17:00, with a lunch break from 12:00 to 14:00.
Money in Andorra
The payment unit of Andorra is Euro. One Euro is equal to 100 cents. In circulation there are banknotes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 Euros and coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents.
Currency can be exchanged at banks or exchange offices. Credit cards and traveler’s checks are widely used in the country.
Rate: 1 Euro (EUR) = 1.05 USD
Political State in Andorra
According to politicsezine, Andorra is a principality. In fact, it is a self-governing democratic republic. After the adoption of the constitution in 1993, the president of France and the bishop of the Spanish city of Seu d’Urgell became co-rulers. In the principality, they are represented by princes-governors (vigier). Internal self-government and legislative functions are carried out by an elected General Council. He appoints the Government.
Population in Andorra
Indigenous Andorrans make up only a quarter of the country’s population, mostly Spaniards live here (61%), there are also French and Portuguese.
The official language of Andorra is Catalan close to Spanish. Spanish and French are widely spoken, and English is widely spoken in most tourist areas of the country.
Cuisine in Andorra
Andorran cuisine has been greatly influenced by Catalan and French cuisines. It is very popular here assorted meats (beef, lamb, pork, rabbit and turkey) cooked on the grill – “la parillada”, a mixture of roasted peppers and eggplant – “escalivada”, Andorran trout, grilled duck, rabbit in tomato sauce “kunillo”, fish soup with seafood and rice, thick soup with cod and vegetables – “porusalda” and “mariscada” – a dish of fish, mussels, shrimp and octopus. Just like in Italy, the locals love pasta.