Albania Languages Part III

By | December 15, 2021

Alongside many Illyrian-Albanian correspondences (see Jokl, in Reallexikon der Vorgesch., I, p. 86 ff.), There are other Traco-Albanian correspondences (Jokl, ibidem, p. 88 ff.), Not always easily determinable by the lack of material available to us and the proximity that seems to have existed since ancient times between the Thracian and the Illyrian (Jokl, in Reallexikon der Vorgesch., I, p. 89 ff. and IV, p. 43 ff. ; Barić, Archiv, cit., II, p. 152 ff.). Admitting that Illyrian or Thracian represent the most ancient phase of Albanian is not only a linguistic question of primary importance, but also has consequences on the indigenous or otherwise of the Albanians in the seats now occupied; in fact the area now inhabited by the Albanians was an Illyrian area, and only in the far south was also Thracian. Now if the Albanians are descendants of the Thracians, it must be admitted that they came from the south to the north and from the east to the west. According to the Weigand (Balkanarchiv, III, 1927, p. 231 ff.) Different elements speak against the autochthony of the Albanians: the Latin place names do not follow the phonetic changes proper to the Albanian, but those of the ancient Dalmatic; the seafaring and fishing terminology is of foreign origin, which is almost impossible for a people that had always had its headquarters on the shore of the Adriatic; there are no Dalmatic influences in Albanian, but only Italians and Venetians; in Albanian there are several words that can be proved of Thracian origin, while several names proper to Thracian and Dacian person and place are explained with the help of the Albanian. If the Albanians had always inhabited today’s Albania, the oldest place names should have assumed the Albanian phonetic system; the Albanians are not named before the century. XI, although the region where they now live is mentioned in several earlier documents; Romanian-Albanian and Balkan relations in general require contact between Albanians and Wallachians, etc., etc. Although not all of these points stand up to criticism, however, in today’s state of events it must be assumed that not only Illyrian represents the Indo-European basis of Albanian, but an Illyrian-Thracian language, or, more likely, a Thracian dialect Illyrian. This also explains the syntactic and phonetic coincidences that are called “Balkan”. we must believe that not only Illyrian represents the Indo-European basis of Albanian, but an Illyrian-Thracian language, or, more likely, an Illyrian Thracian dialect. This also explains the syntactic and phonetic coincidences that are called “Balkan”. we must believe that not only Illyrian represents the Indo-European basis of Albanian, but an Illyrian-Thracian language, or, more likely, an Illyrian Thracian dialect. This also explains the syntactic and phonetic coincidences that are called “Balkan”. For Albania religion and languages, please check ezinereligion.com.

The Indo-European elements of Albanian are, from the lexical point of view, very few. Gustav Meyer in his Albanian Etymological Dictionary (Etymol. Wörterbuch d. Alban. Sprache, Strasbourg 1891) admits about 400 out of 5000 words; therefore less than 10%; nevertheless the later etymological researches by Jokl, Barić and other linguists have considerably increased the number of elements forming the primitive patrimony. In the first place, Latin had a strong influence on Albanian morphology and lexicon, so that Albanian was considered by some to be a mixed language, a semi-neo-Latin language. It is certain that Albanian was on the way to becoming a neo-Latin language; and so it would have been if the Roman influence had continued longer. Among the foreign elements are added the Italian elements, more frequent, as is natural, in the Albanians of Italy, the Greek ones in the south,

The phonetics of the autochthonous (ie Indo-European) elements is characterized especially by: indoeur. ē > alb. o, p. ex. * l ē d ō > alb. o ϑ “I am tired”, cf. NS. ληδεϊν, got. l ē ta ; indoeur. or > alb. a, * noa > alb. na “we” (lat. nos-ter); indoeur. ō > alb. and, p. ex. * gn ō “know”, alb. néh “you know” (lat. gnosco, nosco, NS. γνώσκω, γι-γνώσκω); indoeur. s > alb. ǵ (next to š, h, ϑ), p. ex. alb. ǵ a š teyou are” cf. lat. sex ; indoeur. sk > alb. h: v. the example of ń eh, gnosco already mentioned. The change of deaf ones into voiced after nasal is also noteworthy, the outcome v – dall’indoeur. sv – (indoeur. * sve > alb. vet ε “same”), the correspondences of the guttural palat. indoeur. ø > alb. δ, tosc. δε mp “tooth”, ant. sl. z ï b û, gr. γόμϕος; indoeur. ø h > alb. δ, but ϑ (with the given article but δ i) “large”, ant. ind. mah -, gr. μέγας; indoeur. k > alb. δ etc., etc. (on the guttural Albanians see Pedersen, in Zeitschrift f. vergl. Sprachforschung, XXXVI, p. 277 ff.).

In morphology, many elements that were believed to be Latin have been returned to the original linguistic background by later research, so p. ex. the very frequent verbs in – o ń (Pedersen, in Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte d. rom. Philologie del Vollmöller, IX, 1, 210) and almost the entire conjugation system (Pedersen, Albanesische Texte mit Glossar, Leipzig 1895).

Albania Languages Part III