Albania History and Military

By | December 15, 2021

The name appears for the first time in the middle of the century. II d. C. in Ptolemy’s Geography (III, 12, 20), which recalls the ‘Αλβανοί, an Illyrian people living in the country between Likos (Alessio) and the Candavici Mountains, and their capital Albanopoli, of uncertain identification. But in documents and historical sources, the name is found with some frequency only from the middle of the century. XI; the territory that extends from the outskirts of Croia to Shkumbî is since then and up to the century. XV indicated by the Byzantines with the name of Arbanon or Albanon, in lat. Arbanum ; the people are called ‘Αλβανοί or’ Αλβανῖται (also ‘Αρβανοί or’ Αρβανῖται) in Greek, Albanenses or Arbanenses in Latin. The Turkish form Arnauti also seems to derive from the neo-Greek form, which plays Arvanitis. The name Arber or Arben still survives, although little used, among the Albanians of the north. The name of the people (Shqipëtar, plur.Shqipëtarë, hence Shqipëria) is also of uncertain origin (“those who understand” or “the eagles”). In any case, it is an ethnographic name, and the boundaries of the territory designated with it changed over time; since, in the middle centuries and also at the beginning of the modern age, the Albanians, in periods in which they were subject to attempted oppression of neighboring peoples, restricted themselves to the alpine parts of their country, while in epochs of greater quiet they tended to overflow especially towards the eastern basins and plains. But on the whole the borders of the region, in which the Albanians still appear today in a more compact mass, are well indicated to the North. by the high and impervious chain of the Northern Albanian Alps, between the lake of Scutari and the sources of the Drin Bianco; to E.

These, which can be designated as natural borders of Albania, do not coincide with the political borders of the Albanian state, which were, after complicated events, definitively established with protocols signed in Paris in May 1925 (see below).

Within today’s political borders, Albania has, according to official data, an area of ​​27,538 sq km.

Cards. The best maps currently existing of all geographic and geological Albania are those of 200,000 published in 1928.

Army. – Albania, which has recently risen to an independent state, has not yet been able to organize its armed forces properly. Only a few years ago, under the impulse of Ahmed Zogu, has the establishment of a real regular army begun.

The supreme commander is the king, who, however, is assisted by the secretary for the armed forces and the chief of staff of the army.

Recruitment is mandatory: regional for infantry, national for machine gunners and artillery.

Military obligations range from 18 to 50 years of age. The stop is 18 months.

The units of the Albanian army consist of:

the battalion of the royal guard;

9 infantry battalions;

the mixed battalion;

9 someggiate batteries, of 70, on 4 pieces;

the mixed company of pioneers with a car park and workshop;

5 gendarmerie battalions, formed with mercenaries.

Each battalion includes 3 companies of riflemen and 1 of machine guns; the mixed battalion additionally has a 75-piece battery out of 3 pieces. The guard battalion is made up of volunteers; 5 of the 11 infantry battalions are made up of reservists (the strength of the companies ranges from 120 to 150 men).

The annual budget for the army is around eleven million gold francs.

Education. – According to official data from the 1926-27 school year, in Albania there are 552 public schools with 28,514 pupils and 929 teachers, and 89 private schools with 2892 pupils and 122 teachers. The schools are divided into elementary and middle schools. Elementary schools have a compulsory four-year first course and a two-year supplementary course for those who want to enroll in middle school. The middle schools, which are fourteen in all, of which three are girls, are partly of the German type and partly of the French type: they are divided into gymnasiums, secondary schools, technical schools and normal schools. For Albania 2010, please check programingplease.com.

There is no university teaching, and students who intend to continue their studies must transfer to foreign universities. Numerous students are enrolled in Italian high schools. Due to the poor economic conditions of most of the university students, the Albanian government contributes to their maintenance through 156 scholarships. Even for Albanian schools (elementary and middle school), with relative breadth, the most needy students are provided (1124 scholarships).

Prehistory

Prehistory. – Prehistoric research in Albania is still in its infancy: some scientific results have now been achieved by the Italian Archaeological Mission. In northern Albania were found lithic mallets, with holes, and axes of pure copper and bronze, provided with an eye for the handle. Even the excavations carried out in 1926, within the Acropolis of Feniki, have brought to light lithic objects, which constitute the first group of prehistoric material that surely emerged from the Albanian subsoil. The lithic objects are ascribable to the Bronze Age; metallic ones can also reach the early Iron Age. Worthy of note is the fact that, both of them and the others, are rather to be compared to the similar material that emerged from the soil of southern Italy,

The protohistoric age is a bit uncertain, because, in today’s state of archaeological discoveries, a material that is protohistoric has been found in Albania, but it was also built and used in historical age. The necropolis of Komani, in the district of Shkodra, has returned a protohistoric (perhaps Illyrian) funerary furnishings but some tombs are at least from the 13th century. IV d. C., as evidenced by the presence in them of coins of Constantine. The legends reported by classical authors about ethnic migrations from ancient Albania (southern Illyria) to the Italian coasts of the Salento peninsula, inhabited by Messapî, Peucezî and Iapigi (Pliny, Nat. Hist., III, 102) refer to the protohistoric age.

For the history of Albania in the classical era, and in particular under Roman rule, see Illyrians, Illyrian and epiro.

Albania History