The climate. – Up to now, there is a scarcity of precise information on the climate of Albania, due to the lack of long-term operational weather stations. While Hahn had already coordinated the data from Durres and Valona, (Meteorol. Zeitschr., 1914, p. 190 ff.), More recently V. Conrad also used the observations made in meteorological stations temporarily installed by the Austrians during the war, reducing them to a long period by comparing them with nearby stations for which satisfactory series of observations are possessed. The main data are collected in the table at the foot of the page, about which it should be noted that those relating to Puka, Tirana and Elbasan are to be received with great caution.
It is deduced from this table that an influence of latitude is quite evident in the average annual temperatures, as well as in the average of the coldest month, which is everywhere in January. Winter temperatures remain well above zero throughout the lowland region, which therefore has a very mild climate. The months of July and August almost everywhere have significantly equal averages, which is an indication of the long duration of the summer period at high temperatures; to this long duration, rather than to the height of the maximum values, we owe the sensation of heavy heat, according to some even unbearable, which is experienced during the summer in Albania, especially in the plains. The annual excursions are very strong; the mitigating influence of the sea is felt only on the coast and ceases at a short distance (Scutari, excursion 20 °, 1); values much higher than 20 ° should be found in the innermost regions, especially within the hollows surrounded all around by high mountains. For Albania geography, please check franciscogardening.com.
Very little is known about the wind regime. It is known that the bora still makes itself felt on the Albanian coasts, but no longer with the violence it retains on the northern coast of Dalmatia; when the bora stops, snow sometimes comes. The coastal regions benefit from sea winds in the summer, which are still felt in Shkodra and Tirana. Daytime breezes (from SE.) And nocturnal breezes (from NW) alternate, according to Hassert, on Lake Scutari.
The rainfall everywhere exceeds one meter and increases moving away from the sea, with increasing height, most likely exceeding 2 and a half meters in the mountainous districts of the NE. The data on the average number of rainy days are to be received with caution. The seasonal distribution of rain is of great importance. The summer period is essentially dry, especially in the southern maritime region; Prolonged droughts, even over a month, are frequent in summer, in Durres and Valona. The copious autumn-winter rains often have the character of violent downpours, which has an influence on the regime of the rivers, as will be discussed shortly. Thunderstorms with hail are not uncommon, especially in the northern regions, during the spring (until June); they occur more rarely in October. On the average number of days with snow, there are no figures that are somewhat reliable except for Shkodra (average 3.6); certainly the average grows in the elevated regions of the interior; on the high mountains the snowy mantle persists for the duration of winter and sometimes until late spring.
Overall, despite the modest extension of Albania, there are very considerable differences in climate from region to region, which is a consequence not so much of the meteorological factors themselves, but of the morphological ones already mentioned above, that is, of the mountainous character of the territory, or better, of the alternation of fairly isolated elevated mountainous areas, and of deep valleys and wide, almost closed basins.