Albania 1991

By | December 15, 2021

Demographic and social conditions. – At the 1982 census the population was 2,786,100 residents, With an increase of 46.2% in 22 years. In 1989 the estimated residents amounted to 3.2 million, corresponding to a density of 111.3 residents per km 2.

The increase in the population was favored by the rapid decrease in the mortality rate (from 17.8 ‰ in 1938, to 7.0 ‰ in 1969, to 5.6 ‰ in 1988). The average age from 38.2 years in 1938 rose to 68 in 1963 and to 72 in 1988. As for the birth rate, which also reached its peak in 1960 (43.4 ‰), it too shows a decline, having dropped to 35 ‰ in 1969 and 25.9 ‰ in 1988.

A characteristic aspect of the Albania it is the still high percentage of the scattered population (practically two thirds of the population) despite the progressive depopulation of the countryside. The cities have undergone a significant increase in residents. In the period 1955-87, Tirana increased from 59,887 to 225,700 residents, Assuming the appearance of a modern city, with a notable presence of industries and cultural institutions; Durres, from 14,031 to 78,700 residents, ranks second as the largest commercial center of the entire Albanian coast; Shkodra, from 33,852 to 76,300 residents, is the third Albanian city. Urban growth was also followed by the improvement of school and health facilities. The public education system has consolidated, making illiteracy among young people almost non-existent. An important contribution to the development of culture is given by the Academy of Sciences, established in 1972, and by various research centers and institutes. Health care is free and extended to even the most remote areas of the country; there is currently one doctor for every 583 residents, while in 1973 the ratio was 1 to 830. In 1986, 797 hospitals had 17,600 beds.

Publishing and printing are also expanding: 130 newspapers and scientific bulletins are published, as well as 6 magazines in foreign languages. The diffusion of radio sets improved (1 out of 6 in 1985 compared to 1 out of 13 in 1972) and of televisions (1 out of 13 in 1985 compared to 1 out of 762 in 1972).

Economic conditions. – The economic address of the Albania it is still today mainly agricultural even if the industrial activities, however modest, have assumed ever greater proportions in the last thirty years. This is a modernized agriculture, which has been fully implemented with the five-year plans. In 1983, on a utilized area of ​​1,113,000 ha (38.7% of the land area), 500 cooperatives and 50 state farms were distributed. The latter carry out an important action in the collectivist transformation process of the countryside and their development is largely connected with the use of the new reclaimed lands, with the terracing of sloping soils and with the exploitation of less fertile lands. The plan policy, which in 1990 concluded the 8th five-year period, has achieved significant increases in the production area thanks to the reclamation works. Between 1970 and 1983, arable crops increased by 27.7%. On the other hand, the wooded area has decreased (from 42.9% to 36.9% of the territorial surface) and the production of timber is still high (in 1987 it was 2,330,000 m3).

Positive and appreciable variations are found for herbaceous crops and, in particular, for wheat, whose average yield per hectare has gone from 15 q in 1970 to 27.9 q in 1985, and for corn, whose values ​​are of 14.8 q in 1970 and 42.1 q in 1985. Among the woody crops, the olive tree assumes considerable importance and is mainly distributed in the hilly areas of the Mediterranean climate zone. The livestock heritage is very rich, especially if compared to the needs of the population. The improvement, more qualitative than numerical, of some species (cattle and pigs) has helped to consolidate the sector, traditionally linked to the breeding of sheep and goats. Fishing activity is good, both in maritime and inland waters (12,468 t of fish in 1987). For Albania 2016, please check softwareleverage.org.

The industrial sector, in which state-owned companies and cooperatives operate, is the one that has achieved the greatest success. At the same time as the technical and administrative reorganization of some pre-existing activities, new systems were installed. Mining activities, making use of periodic research on the geological structure of the country, have led to appreciable increases in the production of fuels – oil (3,000,000 tons in 1987 in Qyteti Stalin, Marinëz, Patos), coal, mostly lignite (2,184,000 t in 1988, in Alarup, Memaliaj, Mborje-Drenovë, Krrabë) and natural gas (440 million m 3 in 1985 – and cupriferous pyrites (15,000 t in 1987), as well as nickel ores (10,500 t in 1987) and iron.

The degree of industrial development and the state of well-being achieved by the population can be assessed through the production of electricity: from 125 million kWh produced in 1957 to 1250 million in 1972 and 3840 million in 1987 (2/3 of water origin). In addition to meeting the needs of the country, electricity is exported (as many as 2000 million kWh in 1984). Among the industries, the chemical sector is undoubtedly the youngest and has reached an intense development. Nitrogen fertilizers (Laç and Fier), sulfuric acid and caustic soda (Valona), ammonia, nitric acid and nitrogen (Fier), cosmetics, colors and plastics are produced. The refining of oil through the plants of Qyteti Stalin, Cërrik and Fier also had a notable boost.

The Elbasan plant is included in the steel industry, while the Bicaj, Kurbnesh and Rubik plants (15,000 tons of metal in 1988) are worthy of note in the copper metallurgy one. The mechanical and electromechanical industry is present in the districts of Tirana, Shkodra, Durres and Koerçë; the production of measuring instruments, electric motors, agricultural machinery and various means of transport assumes particular importance. Even for the traditional sectors, completely restructured, there are increases in production.

Commerce and communications. – The intensity of Albanian trade is closely linked to the increases recorded in production and to product changes. The main trade exchanges take place with the People’s Republic of China, with the COMECON countries and with France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and Greece. The trade balance is still passive, even if the deficit between the value of imported and exported goods tends to decrease annually.

The ways and means of communication have improved significantly in recent years. The road network has been strengthened and the railways have increased from 302 to 509 km. The merchant fleet, non-existent in 1960, reached 20 ships in 1988, for a total of 56,133 GRT. The main maritime emporium is Durres, which is also the largest railway network in the country. International air connections are ensured from Rinas Airport, near Tirana.

Albania 1991