The state continues to hold its own with the constitution of March 1946 (modified in July 1950). Following the increase in the number of residents, the People’s Assembly increased from 188 to 214 members.
In 1958 the Albania adopted a new administrative division into 26 districts, which replaced the pre-existing prefectures. In 1967 they included 51 cities, 125 districts, 309 unified villages and 2524 villages and hamlets. For statistical purposes, 5 regions are distinguished: Northern or Shkodra, Tirana-Durres, Elbasan-Berat, Southwestern or Valona, Coriza. For Albania 2014, please check thesciencetutor.org.
Demographic and social conditions. – The last general census of the population, which followed that of 1955, dates back to 1960 and recorded a resident population of 1,626,315 residents, With a five-year increase of 16.6%. In 1973 the residents were estimated at 2,315,000, with a density of 80.5 residents per km 2.
The extraordinary demographic increase (2.9% per year) is higher than that of any other European country and is mainly due to the rapid decrease in the mortality rate and the consequent increase in the average life span (from 38.2 years in 1938 at 68 in 1973). In 1969 the birth rate was 3.5%, the mortality rate was 0.7%; the infant mortality coefficient (86.8 ‰ in 1965) is still the highest in Europe.
However, the natural rate of increase has already begun its downward trend, following the stabilization of the mortality rates and the incipient decline of the birth rate, as a reflection of the changes taking place in the economic and social structure.
The standard of living of the population is constantly improving, but still remains at the lowest levels in Europe. In the short space of fifteen years there has been a massive shift of the population from the countryside to the cities, which now welcome about a third of the residents. From 1955 to 1971 Tirana increased from 59,887 to 174,800 residents (+ 191.9%), Shkodra from 33,852 to 56,500 residents (+ 66.9%), confirming itself in second place among the Albanian cities, while in third place was placed Durres, thanks to the development of port activities, passing from 14,031 to 55,000 residents (+ 292%). Great progress has also been made in Vlora, rising from 14,640 to 51,400 residents (+ 251.1%), Coriza, from 24,035 to 47,900 (+ 99.3%), Elbasan, from 14,968 to 43,200 (+ 188.6%) and Berat, from 11,817 to 26,700 (+ 125.9%). Cities over 25,000 residents they have thus increased from 2 to 7 and are now home to over a fifth of the entire population. The development of the urban network has favored the strengthening of school and health facilities. In 1969, 629,020 young people attended schools of all levels, of which 18,467 were enrolled at the University of Tirana; illiteracy can now be said to have practically disappeared in the youth classes. Compared to 1938 hospital beds had risen in 1973 from 0.8 to 8 for every thousand residents, distributed among 336 hospitals; doctors from 1 per 10,000 to 1 per 830 residents. The spread of radios (1 every 13 residents In 1972), televisions (1 every 762 residents), Telephones (1 every 133 residents) Is also constantly expanding. On the other hand, the motorization index is very low (1 car for every 620 residents In 1970), since it is not allowed to
Commerce and communications. – The Albanian foreign trade reflects the economic development of the country and presents significant qualitative increases and conspicuous product variations. After the break with the Soviet Union, the main commercial relations took place with the People’s Republic of China (about 55% of the total in 1970); the socialist republics of Europe follow: Czechoslovakia (13%), Poland (8%) and the German Democratic Republic (7%); the first Western country to have established commercial relations with the Albania it is Italy (6%).
The trade balance is constantly passive (in 1970 exports represented just 69% of imports) and the balance of payments can only be balanced with Chinese financial aid. In exports, fuels, minerals and metals are on the rise (54% in 1964), while food products (23%) and raw materials of animal and vegetable origin (17%) are decreasing. Among imports, industrial equipment together with vehicles and spare parts grew rapidly (50% in 1964), while food products (16%), durable consumer goods (7%), fuels, minerals and metals (15%) and raw materials of animal and vegetable origin (5%).
The ways and means of communication have improved significantly in the last fifteen years, but are still lacking. The length of the roads went from 2400 km in 1957 to 4800 in 1967, that of railways from 117 km to 302. The car fleet in 1970 consisted of 14,700 cars, of which only 3,500 cars (as already mentioned, it is not private car use allowed in Albania).
The merchant fleet, non-existent until 1960, reached the consistency of 18 ships in 1973 for a total of 57,068 grt. disembarkation and 0.7 upon boarding). Rinas Airport, near Tirana, has improved its international connections, served by foreign companies.