Afghanistan 1961

By | December 16, 2021

According to recent estimates the Afghanistan it has a population of about 12 million, almost a fifth of which belong to nomadic tribes. In the last decade, the economic conditions of the Afghanistan have slightly improved, thanks to the financial aid granted by the USA (53.5 million dollars from 1949 to 1956) and the USSR (100 million dollars in 1956), and largely destined for the development of irrigation and hydroelectric systems, mining, industry and communications.

Of the 65 million ha of the land area, 34 million are unproductive, 25 million are occupied by meadows and pastures (exploited for breeding, mainly transhumant, which counts: 12-14 million sheep, 6-8 million goats , 2.5 million cattle, 1.5 million horses and 0.4 million camels) and 1 million from forests, and only 2.5 million for crops (wheat 21 million q, barley 3 million q, rice 3 million q, corn from 2 to 6 million q, potatoes 1 million q, fruit 7 million q, cotton 200,000 q of fiber and 400,000 q of seeds, sugar beet 70,000 q of crude oil). The remaining 2.5 million ha are not used, although they are suitable for cultivation with the aid of irrigation. For Afghanistan 2005, please check ehealthfacts.org.

Some dams already completed or nearing completion on the Kābul, Arghand-āb and Surkh-āb rivers and on the Boghra canal, derived from the Hilmand River, will allow irrigation to be extended to about half a million hectares of land and to considerably increase production of electricity, which currently reaches just 50 million kWh per year.

The subsoil contains significant mineral deposits (iron, copper, lead, chromium, asbestos, sulfur, gold, silver, mica, coal and oil, recently discovered in the Herat region and northern Afghānistān), but extraction is limited only to modest quantities of coal (about 20,000 tons per year), gold, iron and the famous lapis lazuli of Badakhshān.

Traditional handicrafts, very widespread, produce carpets, silk and camel hair articles, but modern industry is very poorly developed: wool mills in Kābul and Qandahār, cotton mills in Pul-i-Khumri, Gulbuhared and Jabal-us-Siraj, sugar factories in Baghlan and Gialālābād, cement factory near Kābul, as well as small factories of seed oil, soaps, leather, footwear and matches, mostly located in the capital.

Foreign trade recorded in 1956-57 a value of 1.6 billion Afghans for imports (cottons, iron articles, weapons, electrical equipment, leather, cement, oil, tea and sugar), evidence mostly from USSR, India, Pakistan and Japan, and 1.5 billion Afghans for exports (skins, of which 2 million karakul ′ wool, cotton, carpets, oilseeds, opium and timber), mainly for India, the USSR, the USA, Great Britain and Pakistan.

Communications are still very scarce and difficult: the railways are completely lacking and there are only 3,000 km of carriage roads, on which just 6,000 vehicles circulate. Air traffic is limited to the airports of Kābul and Qandahār, where a large international airport is under construction.

History. – The Afghanistan, unscathed from the Second World War, member of the UN since 1946, was faced with two serious problems: the determination of its borders and internal economic development. During the war period the trade balance of the to. it had improved, but nevertheless the country remained very poor, with two thirds of the population dedicated to pastoralism and a backward economy, with little possibility of progress due to the lack of capital, technicians and communication routes. In this situation, the Afghanistan he mainly turned to the USA and the USSR to obtain economic support in various capacities. In 1946 an agreement was concluded between the government and the American Morrison Knudson Corporation, to reclaim about 320. 000 hectares of desert through a system of dams and artificial lakes in the Hilmand and Argand-āb valleys. Oil explorations were also attempted by American companies, but with poor results. From 1949 to 1954, following a trip by Minister Abdul Majid Khan to the USA, the Export-Import Bank granted to the Afghanistan two loans for a total of 40 million dollars. The USA also granted $ 9 million in aid between 1947 and 1955 for agricultural improvements and the modernization of public administration, education and health. Trade relations with Russia, facilitated by low transport costs, given the territorial proximity and, indirectly, by the Pakistani economic blockade, became closer since 1950, following a commercial agreement regulating exchanges and payments for a period of four years, which can be extended for four in four years. In December 1953 a new protocol on trade relations extended the previous treaty; with a subsequent agreement, concluded in Kābul on January 27, 1954 and renewed on August 27, 1955, the USSR gave serious economic support, providing, in addition to capital for public works and oil research, machines, manufactured goods, petroleum, and technical assistance. Following the trip to Kābul of M. Bulganin and N. Chruščëv (December 1955), the Afghanistan obtained a loan of 100 million dollars and economic relations became even closer with the conclusion of further economic agreements, the last of which is on May 28, 1959. Khrushchev (December 1955), to. obtained a loan of 100 million dollars and economic relations became even closer with the conclusion of further economic agreements, the last of which is on May 28, 1959. Khrushchev (December 1955), to. obtained a loan of 100 million dollars and economic relations became even closer with the conclusion of further economic agreements, the last of which is on May 28, 1959.

Afghanistan also asked for and obtained aid from the UN and concluded important trade agreements with Czechoslovakia, India, Japan, West Germany, developing an economic policy aimed at attracting large foreign capital. As regards the problem of borders, with the agreement of September 29, 1948, the borders between the United States and the USSR were soon reached. The problem of the southern borders with Pakistan was much more difficult. This issue gave rise to a tension that seemed to have resulted in an armed conflict in 1955 and that shows no sign of resolving, despite the mediation attempts made by the USA from Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The Afghan foreign policy in recent years has tended to develop friendship with the USSR and the Eastern bloc, but it tries to avoid too close dependence on the USSR, maintaining good relations also with America and its allies. The Afghanistan, a country traditionally open to foreign influences, tries to maintain a political line of balance between the two blocs, which was confirmed by a joint declaration by the two Indian and Afghan prime ministers, in September 1949, in which the two heads of government declare that they agree on the so-called “non-alignment” policy.

Afghanistan 1961