Monthly Archives: January 2022

Spain in the 19th Century Part III

The names of Ferdinand of Portugal, of the Duke of Genoa, of Espartero, of the Duke of Montpensier, of the Prince of Asturias, in favor of whom his mother Isabella II had abdicated, of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern were named: but they were either discarded or refused the offer; and the candidacy of the latter… Read More »

Spain in the 19th Century Part II

But soon new reasons were added to the old reasons for dissent; and the regime was discredited by many court intrigues and, among other things, by a sensational scandal for the construction of railways, in which the queen mother Maria Cristina and her lover, later morganatic husband, the Muñoz, were involved. Then, a victorious military… Read More »

Spain in the 19th Century Part I

Then, against the foreign sovereign imposed by the emperor, Spain rose together, giving rise to a terrible revolt, which Napoleon tried in vain to suffocate, exhausting his army in the struggle (1808-13); and it was a war that was rightly called the war of independence because it seemed that the country in the defense of the noble… Read More »