Monthly Archives: May 2021

Overview of Morocco History

Independence Day: March 2, 1956 Head of state: King Mohammed VI (since 1999) Head of government: Saadeddine Al Othmani Political system: Constitutional hereditary monarchy Democracy Status Index (BTI): Rank 104 of 137 (2020) Corruption Index (CPI): Rank 80 of 180 (2019) Ibrahim Index of African Governance: Rank 15 of 54 (2018) Special features of the… Read More »

Morocco Recent History

Modern times In 1659 the Alawids conquered Marrakech and drove out the last Saadians. In 1664 they defeat the Dila Brotherhood in northern Morocco and take control of most of what is now Morocco. From 1664 to 1672, the Sultan Moulay Raschid consolidated the rule of the Alawids. His successor Moulay Ismail tried from 1672… Read More »

Morocco Early History

According to businesscarriers, Morocco is called in Arabic “Al Maghrib” (“The Maghreb”) or “Al Mamlaka Al Maghribiya” (The Maghreb Kingdom, formerly also “the Sherif Kingdom”). The name “Morocco” is derived from the city of Marrakech. Morocco has been independent since 1956 and, according to the constitution, is a constitutional monarchy. Prehistory Traces of human life… Read More »

Peru Overview

Country overview & natural area From a scenic, cultural, ethnic and climatic point of view, Peru is a fascinating country. 84 of the 117 recognized life zones in the world can be found between the Pacific coast, Andean highlands and the Amazon region. Peru is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity in… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part I

President Vizcarra and Congress President Manuel Merino On Sunday November 16, Congress managed to set up a multi-party leadership committee. The plenary session of the Congress voted on this. Of the 123 parliamentarians present, 97 voted for and 26 against the composition. A President and three Vice-Presidents of the Congress were thus determined. At the… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part II

The first case of the corona virus was confirmed in Peru on March 6, 2020. On March 15, President Vizcarra ordered compulsory quarantine and shortly thereafter a night curfew from 8:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. This was initially valid throughout the country for 15 days. With this measure, Vizcarra took the political initiative again and… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part III

At the beginning of July 2019, the Vizcarra government approved the start of the Tía María copper project by the Mexican company Southern Peru in the Tambo Valley. The population of Islay Province rioted on July 15 over fears for agriculture and water. The government is facing a difficult problem shortly before the national holiday… Read More »

Peru Geography

Peru Overview Peru is the largest Andean country, was the cradle of the most developed indigenous civilizations and the seat of the strongest empire in pre-Hispanic South America, the Inca Empire. Peru was the center of Spanish colonial rule for three centuries. For these reasons the country has a diverse heritage in terms of people… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part IV

After tough negotiations, the executive succeeded in convincing the members of the communities in the area of the Las Bambas mining project to lift the road blockade. At the moment, the demands of the communities are being negotiated in nine working groups made up of the executive and community members. While some working groups are… Read More »

Peru Political Situation Part V

After releasing audio recordings of corrupt judges and prosecutors, President Vizcarra took an active role in the fight against corruption in the judicial system. He quickly nominated a judicial commission to propose reforming the sector by July 25th. In his government speech on July 28, 2018, he presented the first results of this commission and… Read More »

Peru Presidential and Congressional Elections

Congress elections on January 26, 2020 The congressional elections scheduled for the end of September 2019 due to the dissolution of the congress have resulted in a fractional congress. Of the 21 parties that ran for elections, only nine managed to pass the 5% hurdle. The party Volksaktion AP received 10.5% of the votes in… Read More »

Peru Presidential and Congressional Elections 2

In parliament, Keiko Fujimori’s People’s Strength party had 72 (one member of parliament left the parliamentary group) of the 130 congress seats, giving it a clear majority. Surprisingly, the “Broad Front” has established itself as the second political force in Congress with 20 seats (one member of parliament left the parliamentary group, the “Broad Front”… Read More »

Peru Domestic Politics 2

The corruption scandal so far has affected Chief Justice César Hinostroza, the President of the Callao Higher Court, Walter Ríos and three members of the National Council of Justice (CNM), which is responsible for appointing judges and removing them from office. The President of the Callao High Court, Walter Ríos, was taken into custody by… Read More »

Peru Domestic Politics

Peru History & State Independence Day: July 28, 1821 Head of state: Francisco Sagasti Hochhausler (from November 17, 2020) Head of government: Violeta Bermúdez Valdivia (since November 18, 2020) Political system: Multi-party system Democracy Status Index (BTI): Rank 29 (out of 129) 2018 Corruption Index (CPI): Rank 105 (of 180) (2018) Power groups The Peruvian… Read More »

Peru History

The pre-Hispanic cultures Clay city by Chan Chan Head of a deity anchored in the wall Paracas ceramics Textiles Mochica ceramics According to dentistrymyth, Peru and Bolivia are considered the cradle of the pre-Columbian civilizations in South America. Long before the Inca, the first high cultures developed here. The Holy City of Caral, which was… Read More »

Peru Government Form

The state of Peru is a democratic, social, independent and sovereign republic. It represents a unit and is indivisible. The state is representative, decentralized and organized according to the principle of the separation of powers. The position of the president within the executive power has been given far-reaching powers since the constitutional amendment of 1993.… Read More »

Peru Local and Regional Elections

Elected governor Aymara leader Walter Aduviri Regional and local elections on October 7th / December 9th, 2018 In the elections for the mayor of Lima, the representative of the popular action Jorge Muñoz won with 36.2% of the vote. Three weeks earlier it was 4% in the polls. The big winners of the local elections… Read More »

Peru Foreign Policy

Relations with the USA traditionally had foreign policy priority for Peru. But while in 2007 30% of Peruvian exports to the USA were still accounted for, this fell to 15.1% of total exports in 2015. Only 20.6% of the imports came from the USA in 2015. After lengthy negotiations, the Trans-Pacific Trade Agreement TPP was… Read More »

Peru Economy Development

Peru Economy Estimated GDP: $ 206.5 billion Per capita income (purchasing power parity): 12,323 PPP $ (2018, HDR 19) Human Development Rank (HDI): Rank 82 (2018, HDR 19) Population prone to multidimensional poverty: 12.5% (2018, HDR 19) Distribution of income (Gini coefficient): 0.433 (2018, HDR 19) Economic Transformation Index (BTI): Rank 29 (of 129) (2018)… Read More »

Peru Economic Sectors

The impact of the corona pandemic on production in the country in March and April 2020 is devastating. The INEI gives the decline in sectoral production in April as follows: 57.82% for fisheries, 42.29% for mining, 54.91 for manufacturing, 89.91% for construction, 65.41 for retail, 94.55% for hotels and restaurants. Only agriculture was able to… Read More »

Peru Development Cooperation

Poverty and Poverty Reduction In Peru, wealth is concentrated in a few cities, mostly on the coast, while the rural population of the mountains lives in poverty. From the beginning, the Humalas government attached great importance to the question of social “inclusion” within government policy. The Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion, created in 2011,… Read More »

Peru Society

Proportion of literate adults: 94.1% (2018, HDR 19) Major religions: Catholicism approx. 89%, Protestant 7% Urban population: 77.9% (2018, HDR 19) Life expectancy: 76.5 (2018, HDR 19) Gender Inequality Index: 0.381 (2018, HDR 19) Child mortality under five years (out of 1000): 15 (2018, HDR 19) Stl. Education expenditure (% GNP): 3.9% (2018, HDR 19)… Read More »

Peru Education and Health

Education Schoolchildren from a slum In recent years the government has made great efforts to promote the educational system. In 2005, 17% of the state budget was devoted to this area, which corresponds to 2.8% of the gross domestic product. According to CEPAL, the average in Latin America is 18% and 4%, respectively. The degree… Read More »

Peru Everyday Life

Currency: New Peruvian Sol Exchange rate: 4.45 per € (January 4, 2021) Time zone: CET -6 hours Country code (phone): +51 International Airport (IATA): LIM (Lima) Climate (for capital): temperate, humid Entry According to a2zgov, you do not need a visa to enter Peru and the passport must be valid for at least six months… Read More »

Morocco Transportation

Morocco (Al-Mamlaka Al-Maghribiya) is the westernmost country in North Africa. It is separated from Europe by the Strait of Gibraltar, borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and Algeria to the east. The highest mountain is the Toubkal (4167m), the lowest point is Sebkha Tah, in the border area… Read More »

Morocco Ecological Problems

Berbers, Arabs, descendants of black slaves, Europeans: Morocco is a melting pot of civilizations. The rich, diverse human culture, landscapes and warm colors of Moroccan handicrafts fascinate millions of visitors year after year. Many international artists have been inspired by Morocco. Some travelers write rich blogs that can be used as a supplement to travel… Read More »

Morocco Geography

Morocco (Arabic المغرب al-maghrib “land of the sunset”; al-mamlaka al-maghribiya, “Kingdom of Morocco”; Berber: ⴻⵍⵎⴻⵖⵔⵉⴱ / ⴰⵎⴻⵔⵔⵓⴽ, Elmeɣrib / Amerruk) is located in the extreme northwest of Africa, between the 28th and 36th centuries. Latitude and the 1st and 13th longitude. The country extends from the Strait of Gibraltar to south of the Draa River.… Read More »

Kenya Overview

Good economic data, unclear prospects: Kenya, the safari paradise, engine of the region and potential oil-producing country, has been on the right track for years. The goal: to become an emerging market soon. But security problems, political strife and the threat of over-indebtedness dampen hopes. Subject areas Country overview & natural area Kenya combines a… Read More »

Kenya Economic and Financial Policy

Infrastructure as a top priority Traffic & Transport Implementing a coherent economic policy in Kenya has long been difficult for reasons of political structure. In his presidential democracy, economic policy is, on the one hand, the president’s ‘top priority’; on the other hand, there are a number of ministries that deal with economic decisions, but… Read More »

Kenya Industrial Sectors

Tusker, Kikoi, Kenpoly – industry for the region Magadi Soda – pipelines to the factory The industrial sector of Kenya is large in comparison to the African countries south of the Sahara, but it hardly plays a role internationally. The deposits of mineral resources are quite small. For natural soda alone, Kenya is one of… Read More »